Home  Observed Effects  Observed Warming  Observed Anthropogenic  FAQ

All (339 Papers)

Show All Show Only Top

Shortlist Attribution Region SubCategory Year # Citations Cite As DOI Key Quote
Warming Czech Republic Tick-Based Diseases2012 30(Kriz et al., 2012) article presents major epidemiologic features of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the Czech Republic...since the beginning of the 1990s, there has been a steep rise in incidence...These changes in incidence patterns appear to be linked with changes in climatic and meteorological conditions.
Warming Africa (East) Malaria2006 283Top (Pascual et al., 2006) incidence of malaria in the East African highlands has increased since the end of the 1970s...To assess the biological significance of this trend, we drive a dynamical model for the population dynamics of the mosquito vector with the temperature time series and the corresponding detrended versions...the observed temperature changes would be significantly amplified by the mosquito population dynamics with a difference in the biological response at least 1 order of magnitude larger than that in the environmental variable
Temporal Africa (South) Cholera2009 29Top (Paz, 2009) light of this, a Poisson Regression Model has been used to analyze the possible association between the cholera rates in southeastern Africa and the annual variability of air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) at regional and hemispheric scales, for the period 1971-2006. The results showed a significant exponential increase of cholera rates in humans during the study period. In addition, it was found that the annual mean air temperature and SST at the local scale, as well as anomalies at hemispheric scales, had significant impact on the cholera incidence during the study period
Warming Global Cholera2012 83(Vezzulli et al., 2012) showed that during the last half century, ubiquitous marine bacteria of the Vibrio genus, including Vibrio cholerae, increased in dominance...increased sea surface temperature explained 45% of the variance in Vibrio data, supporting the view that ocean warming is favouring the spread of vibrios and may be the cause of the globally increasing trend in their associated diseases.
Warming Africa (East) Drought2011 368(Williams and Funk, 2011) the past 60 years, the Indian Ocean warmed two to three times faster than the central tropical Pacific...In recent decades (1980-2009), this response has suppressed convection over tropical eastern Africa, decreasing precipitation during the 'long-rains' season of March-June.
Temporal Nigeria Extreme Precipitation2010 92(Adelekan, 2010) paper also considers changes in the frequency and intensity of rainstorms on Lagos Island between 1971 and 2005, which suggest that on average these have become less frequent but more intense.
Anthropogenic Africa (East) Malaria2010 102Top (Alonso et al., 2010) focus instead on the recent past (1970-2003) to address whether warmer temperatures have already increased the incidence of malaria in a highland region of East Africa...These findings suggest that climate change has already played an important role in the exacerbation of malaria in this region
Temporal Peru Reduced Streamflow2012 199(Baraer et al., 2012) results suggest that seven of the nine study watersheds have probably crossed a critical transition point, and now exhibit decreasing dry-season discharge.
Anthropogenic Peru Hunter Gatherers2010 121(Bury et al., 2010) in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, are undergoing rapid retreat, in large part due to climate change...Physical observations of the Yanamarey glacier show acceleration in frontal retreat at a rate of 8 m decade-1 since 1970...Hydrological and hydrochemical analyses document a possible transformation of stream flow over the past decade as the seasonal storage capacity of the glacier has degraded...which is increasing human vulnerability in the watershed.
Warming Global Economic Impacts2012 553(Dell et al., 2012) temperatures substantially reduce economic growth in poor countries...higher temperatures may reduce growth rates, not just the level of output...higher temperatures have wide-ranging effects, reducing agricultural output, industrial output, and political stability
Warming Africa (Central) Fisheries2008 14(Descy and Sarmento, 2008) present information indicating that phytoplankton composition in lakes Tanganyika and Kivu may reflect recent changes as a result of global warming or species introduction.
Warming Denmark Crops2011 100(Kristensen et al., 2011) on grain yield from field trials on winter wheat under conventional farming, harvested between 1992 and 2008, were combined with daily weather data available for 44 grids covering Denmark...The agroclimatic index for summer temperature showed the strongest effect causing lower yields with increasing temperature
Temporal Europe Floods2013 152(Kundzewicz et al., 2013) time series of flood information, over 25 years, collected by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory, is used to describe the spatio-temporal variability of large floods in Europe...The present analysis shows an increasing trend during the 25-year period in the number of reported floods exceeding severity and magnitude thresholds.
Warming Global Crops2007 1240(Lobell and Field, 2007) wheat, maize and barley, there is a clearly negative response of global yields to increased temperatures. Based on these sensitivities and observed climate trends, we estimate that warming since 1981 has resulted in annual combined losses of these three crops representing roughly 40 Mt or $5 billion per year, as of 2002
Warming Global Crops2011 2453(Lobell et al., 2011) that link yields of the four largest commodity crops to weather indicate that global maize and wheat production declined by 3.8 and 5.5%, respectively, relative to a counterfactual without climate trends
Warming Zimbabwe Fisheries2011 29(Ndebele-Murisa et al., 2011) around the Kariba area have been rising since 1964; with the maximum range increasing at a faster rate than the minimum temperatures. Kapenta fish production has decreased significantly (R 2 =0.85, Pā‰¤0.05) since 1974 at an average rate of 24.19 metric tons per year...both climate (maximum temperature in particular) and nutrients, which are influenced by water levels, are the primary determinants of Lake Kariba's Kapenta production
Anthropogenic Philippines Crops2004 1495Top (Peng et al., 2004) analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979 to 2003 to examine temperature trends and the relationship between rice yield and temperature...Grain yield declined by 10% for each 1 C increase in growing-season minimum temperature in the dry season, whereas the effect of maximum temperature on crop yield was insignificant. This report provides a direct evidence of decreased rice yields from increased nighttime temperature associated with global warming.
Warming Germany Floods2009 226Top (Petrow and Merz, 2009) time series are derived and analyzed for trends for 145 discharge gauges in Germany. A common time period of 52 years (1951-2002) is used...Our analysis detects significant flood trends (at the 10% significance level) for a considerable fraction of basins. In most cases, these trends are upward; decreasing flood trends are rarely found and are not field-significant...the observed changes in flood behavior are climate-driven.
Warming Global Fisheries2004 799(Atkinson et al, 2004) support commercial fisheries...we have combined all available scientific net sampling data from 1926 to 2003...the productive southwest Atlantic sector contains >50% of Southern Ocean krill stocks, but here their density has declined since the 1970s...summer krill densities correlate positively with sea-ice extent the previous winter.
Anthropogenic France Extreme Precipitation2019 10Top (Ribes et al., 2019) examine long-term trends in the historical record of extreme precipitation events occurring over the French Mediterranean area...The mean intensity increase is significant and estimated at + 22% (+ 7 to + 39% at the 90% confidence level) over the 1961-2015 period...We argue that it is difficult to explain the diagnosed trends without invoking the human influence on climate.
Temporal India Desertification2018 26(Ramarao et al., 2018) the period 1951-2005...An assessment of P/PET estimated using the ensemble mean precipitation shows an increase in aridity over several semiarid regions of India...Our results further reveal a 10% expansion in the area of the semiarid regions during recent decades relative to previous decades
Warming California Fires2019 331(Williams et al., 2019) 1972-2018, California experienced a fivefold increase in annual burned area...Based on a regression analysis, the vast majority of the observed increase in summer forest-fire extent since 1972 is accounted for by observed significant increases in warm-season vapor-pressure deficit (caused by warming)
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2013 764(Westra et al., 2013) study investigates the presence of trends in annual maximum daily precipitation time series obtained from a global dataset of 8326 high-quality land-based observing stations...from 1900 to 2009...statistically significant increasing trends can be detected at the global scale, with close to two-thirds of stations showing increases...there is a statistically significant association with globally averaged near-surface temperature.
Warming China Crops2009 227(You et al., 2009) we use a 1979-2000 Chinese crop-specific panel dataset to investigate the climate impact on Chinese wheat yield growth...Rising temperature over the past two decades accounts for a 4.5% decline in wheat yields in China
Warming North America Allergies2011 262(Ziska et al., 2011) we report that duration of the ragweed (Ambrosia spp.) pollen season has been increasing in recent decades as a function of latitude in North America. Latitudinal effects on increasing season length were associated primarily with a delay in first frost of the fall season and lengthening of the frost free period. Overall, these data indicate a significant increase in the length of the ragweed pollen season by as much as 13-27 d at latitudes above ~44 N since 1995
Warming Africa (North) ZCL2013 62(Bounoua et al., 2013) study describes empirical relationships between L. major ZCL incidence and surface climate indicators. It presents observational evidence from data in two sites that changes in climate in semi-arid pre-Saharan North Africa may be the initial catalyst of a trophic cascade that results in a 1-year delayed response in rodent and sand flies population density and an additional 1-year lag in ZCL-incidence.
Anthropogenic Africa (South) Drought2008 320(Funk et al., 2008), late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies
Temporal Africa Drought2009 24(Kniveton et al., 2009) 1978 to 2002, the start of the wet season arrived later in the year for the majority of the region, as time progressed
Temporal Africa (West) Drought2000 253(Nicholson et al., 2000) West Africa, there has been a pattern of continued aridity since the late 1960s that is most persistent in the more western regions...Rainfall during the last 30 yr (1968-97) has been on average some 15% to 40% lower than during the period 1931-60
Warming Africa (East) Cholera2011 62(Reyburn et al., 2011) 1°C increase in temperature at 4 months lag resulted in a 2-fold increase of cholera cases, and an increase of 200 mm of rainfall at 2 months lag resulted in a 1.6-fold increase of cholera cases.
Warming Europe Drought2010 319(Stahl et al., 2010) flows have decreased in most regions where the lowest mean monthly flow occurs in summer...The broad, continental-scale patterns of change are mostly congruent with the hydrological responses expected from future climatic changes
Warming Australia Extreme Precipitation2011 126(Westra and Sisson, 2011) 1965 to 2005, we find a statistically significant increase of 18% for 6-min rainfall over this period
Temporal United States Drought2007 128Top (Groisman and Knight, 2007) the past four decades, the mean duration of prolonged dry episodes (1 month or longer in the eastern United States and 2 months or longer in the southwestern United States) has significantly increased.
Warming United States Heat Waves2007 371(Medina-Ramon and Schwartz, 2007) findings suggest that increases in heat-related mortality due to global warming are unlikely to be compensated for by decreases in cold-related mortality and that population acclimatisation to heat is still incomplete.
Warming United States Fires2006 3427(Westerling et al., 2006) show that large wildfire activity increased suddenly and markedly in the mid-1980s, with higher large-wildfire frequency, longer wildfire durations, and longer wildfire seasons...strongly associated with increased spring and summer temperatures and an earlier spring snowmelt.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation1997 909(Karl and Knight, 1997) 1910, precipitation has increased by about 10% across the contiguous United States. The increase in precipitation is reflected primarily in the heavy and extreme daily precipitation events. For example, over half (53%) of the total increase of precipitation is due to positive trends in the upper 10 percentiles of the precipitation distribution.
Warming Global Hurricanes2006 237Top (Hoyos et al., 2006) results show that the trend of increasing numbers of category 4 and 5 hurricanes for the period 1970-2004 is directly linked to the trend in sea-surface temperature
Anthropogenic Atlantic Ocean Hurricanes2006 433(Mann and Emanuel, 2006) a formal statistical analysis to separate the estimated influences of anthropogenic climate change from possible natural cyclical influences, this article presents results indicating that anthropogenic factors are likely responsible for long-term trends in tropical Atlantic warmth and tropical cyclone activity
Temporal Global Hurricanes2005 1377(Webster et al., 2005) in the strongest categories (4 + 5) have almost doubled in number (50 per pentad in the 1970s to near 90 per pentad during the past decade) and in proportion (from around 20% to around 35% during the same period)...We conclude that global data indicate a 30-year trend toward more frequent and intense hurricanes, corroborated by the results of the recent regional assessment
Warming Global Hurricanes2005 2415Top (Emanuel, 2005) define an index of the potential destructiveness of hurricanes based on the total dissipation of power, integrated over the lifetime of the cyclone, and show that this index has increased markedly since the mid-1970s...I find that the record of net hurricane power dissipation is highly correlated with tropical sea surface temperature
Warming Global Drought2011 1781(Dai, 2011) article reviews recent literature on drought of the last millennium, followed by an update on global aridity changes from 1950 to 2008...recent warming has increased atmospheric moisture demand and likely altered atmospheric circulation patterns, both contributing to the drying
Warming Global Reduced Streamflow2009 680(Dai et al., 2009) of the top 200 rivers (including the Congo, Mississippi, Yenisey, Paraná, Ganges, Columbia, Uruguay, and Niger) show statistically significant trends during 1948-2004, with the rivers having downward trends (45) outnumbering those with upward trends (19)... Comparisons with the CLM3 simulation suggest that direct human influence on annual streamflow is likely small compared with climatic forcing during 1948-2004 for most of the world's major rivers.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2013 855(Donat et al., 2013) in extreme precipitation are found, for example, for the number of heavy precipitation days (R10mm, Figure 8a) and the contribution from very wet days (R95pTOT, Figure 8b). Globally averaged, both indices display upward trends during the past 60 years. Similar patterns of change are also found for the average intensity of daily precipitation (Figure 8d)
Anthropogenic Global Allergies2004 297(Beggs, 2004) is now considerable evidence to suggest that climate change will have, and has already had, impacts on aeroallergens
Warming Australia Salmonella2004 152(D'Souza, 2004) models describing monthly salmonellosis notifications in terms of calendar time and monthly average temperatures were fitted over the period 1991 to 2001 for each city...The long-term trend showed an increase in salmonellosis notifications in each of the 5 cities. There was a positive association between monthly salmonellosis notifications and mean monthly temperature of the previous month in every city
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation2002 1410(Frich et al., 2002) new global dataset of derived indicators has been compiled to clarify whether frequency and/or severity of climatic extremes changed during the second half of the 20th century...significant increases have been seen in the extreme amount derived from wet spells and number of heavy rainfall events
Temporal Chile Reduced Streamflow2013 26(Vicuña et al., 2013) performed a detailed trend analysis of critical hydroclimatic variables based on observed daily flow, precipitation and temperature within the basin...significant reductions in minimum flow during spring/summer and a disproportionate concentration of high-flow events occurring in the last 10 years were also identified
Warming Atlantic Ocean Hurricanes2008 747Top (Elsner et al., 2008) tropical cyclones are getting stronger on average, with a 30-year trend that has been related to an increase in ocean temperatures over the Atlantic Ocean and elsewhere...We find significant upward trends for wind speed quantiles above the 70th percentile, with trends as high as 0.3 +/- 0.09 m s-1 yr-1 (s.e.) for the strongest cyclones.
Temporal China Reduced Streamflow2011 58(Fischer et al., 2011) tests are applied to daily temperature and precipitation data from 1961 to 2007 of 192 weather stations...The magnitude of indices describing dryness has increased in the Zhujiang River Basin, and dry periods have become longer while wet periods have shortened in time.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2012 178Top (Groisman et al., 2012) the past 31 yr (compared to the 1948-78 period), significant increases occurred in the frequency of very heavy (the daily rain events above 76.2 mm) and extreme precipitation events (defined as daily and multiday rain events with totals above 154.9 mm or 6 in.), with up to 40% increases in the frequency of days and multiday extreme rain events
Temporal Global Extratropical Cyclones2002 96(Paciorek et al., 2002) averages for large sectors of the hemisphere provide some evidence for increases in storm activity and forcing, but results vary by region and decade. The number of cyclones does not appear to be increasing, but there is evidence for an increase in intense cyclones.
Warming India Extreme Precipitation2006 727(Goswami et al., 2006) using a daily rainfall data set, we show (i) significant rising trends in the frequency and the magnitude of extreme rain events and (ii) a significant decreasing trend in the frequency of moderate events over central India during the monsoon seasons from 1951 to 2000
Warming North America Extreme Precipitation2008 148Top (Peterson et al., 2008) data from Canada, the United States, and Mexico enabled analysis of changes in North American extremes starting in 1950...On the basis of several measures, heavy precipitation has been increasing over the last half century, and the average amount of precipitation falling on days with precipitation has also been increasing.
Temporal Alaska Storms Other2012 34(Stegall and Zhang, 2012) frequency of extreme wind events (speed above the 95th percentile winds) shows an increasing trend in all months, with the greatest increase occurring in October, showing 8% more extreme wind events in 2009 comparing to 1979... The significant retreat of sea ice in the study area during the most recent decade (e.g., Comiso et al. 2008; Polyakov et al. 2012) most likely contributes to the strong increasing trend in both wind speeds and frequency of extreme wind events.
Temporal Europe Extreme Precipitation2009 98(Zolina et al., 2009) trends in R95tt and R95tot derived from the annual time series are qualitatively consistent and imply a growing occurrence of extreme precipitation up to 3% decade in central western Europe and in south European Russia, with a more evident trend pattern for R95tt.
Temporal Central and South America Extreme Precipitation2005 372(Aguilar et al., 2005) Central America and northern South America...over the 1961-2003 period...rainfall events are intensifying and the contribution of wet and very wet days are enlarging
Temporal Europe (Central) Extreme Precipitation2007 85(Bartholy and Pongracz, 2007) climate extreme indices are analyzed and compared for Central/Eastern Europe...regional intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation has increased...between 1976 and 2001, while the total precipitation has decreased
Warming Czech Republic Drought2009 67(Brázdil et al., 2009) analyze droughts in the Czech Republic from 1881-2006 based on the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI)...This study clearly confirms the statistically significant tendency to more intensive dry episodes in the region, driven by temperature increase and precipitation decrease.
Temporal Japan Extreme Precipitation2006 50(Fujibe et al., 2006) Long-term changes in the intensity and frequency of heavy precipitation in Japan were analyzed using quality checked daily precipitation data at 51 stations from 1901 to 2004...The result indicates that heavy precipitation based on these indices has increased during the 104 years.
Temporal Atlantic Ocean Hurricanes2008 29(Kossin, 2008) trends in the annual distribution of North Atlantic tropical storm formation...during the period 1851-2007...A consistent signal emerged that suggests the season has become longer as the earliest formation dates of the season have become earlier and the latest dates have become later.
Temporal India Extreme Precipitation2009 145(Krishnamurthy et al., 2009) a 1951-2003 gridded daily rainfall dataset for India... for the exceedance of the 99th percentile of daily rainfall, all locations where a significant increasing trend in frequency of exceedance is identified also exhibit a significant trend in rainfall intensity...there is support for the hypothesis that the frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall over India may be increasing over the previous 53 years
Warming India Extreme Precipitation2008 379(Rajeevan et al., 2008) 104 years (1901-2004) of high resolution daily gridded rainfall data...The present study supports the hypothesis that the increasing trend of extreme rainfall events in the last five decades could be associated with the increasing trend of sea surface temperatures and surface latent heat flux over the tropical Indian Ocean
Temporal United States Storms Other2009 46(Changnon, 2009) nation's top ten loss events during 1950-2006 reveal a notable temporal increase with most losses in the 1992-2006 period. Causes for the increases could be an increasing frequency of very unstable atmospheric conditions leading to bigger, longer lasting storms, and/or a greatly expanded urban society that has become increasingly vulnerable to hailstorms.
Temporal China Floods2005 28(Fengqing et al., 2005) is an increasing trend in flood disasters in Xinjiang during the second half of the 20th century, especially since the mid-1980s...the occurrence of flood disasters could be mainly induced by local human activities before the mid-1980s, and thereafter mainly by abnormal precipitation in Xinjiang...records showed that the number of heavy rainfall events and the frequency of rainstorm flood disasters increased since the 1980s
Anthropogenic Canada Fires2004 510Top (Gillett et al., 2004) has been a pronounced upward trend in area burned by wildland fires in Canada over the past three decades...We further show that human-induced climate change has had a detectable influence on the area burned by forest fire in Canada over recent decades...mean temperature is highly correlated with total area burned in Canada (r = 0.77).
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2009 3Top (Höppe and Grimm, 2009) the world...natural catastrophes have increased dramatically and are causing more and more damage...The upward trend in numbers of natural catastrophes is mainly due to weather-related events such as windstorms and floods...there is some justification for assuming that this trend is the result of changes in the atmosphere, most probably global warming.
Anthropogenic United States Heat Waves2012 60Top (Duffy and Tebaldi, 2012) of observations and climate model results shows that previously rare (5th percentile) summertime average temperatures are presently occurring with greatly increased frequency in some regions of the 48 contiguous United States...this result is more consistent with the consequences of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations than with the effects of natural climate variability
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2013 375Top (Kunkel, 2013) is strong evidence for a nationally averaged upward trend in the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events
Warming Australia Drought2019 2(Lin et al., 2019) in southeastern Australia (SEA) decreased substantially in the austral autumn (March-April-May) of the 1990s and 2000s...this study highlights the role of sea surface temperature (SST) warming in the subtropical South Pacific (SSP) in the autumn rainfall reduction in SEA since the early 1990s.
Anthropogenic India Heat Waves2019 3(Vittal et al., 2019) heat waves over India have been increasing in frequency and severity during recent decades, and are responsible for thousands of deaths...The conditions in the Atlantic that drove these heat waves were exacerbated by greenhouse gas emissions rather than natural forcing.
Warming United States Fires2016 197(Westerling, 2016) percentage growth in wildfire activity in Pacific northwestern and southwestern US forests has rapidly increased over the last two decades...Wildfire activity appears strongly associated with warming and earlier spring snowmelt
Temporal Western North Pacific Hurricanes2018 9(Tu et al., 2018) destructive potential of TCs has a considerable increasing trend from 1998 to 2016 (the P2 period), mainly contributed by the average intensity of TCs
Temporal Global Drought2014 116(Damberg and AghaKouchak, 2014) paper analyzes changes in areas under droughts over the past three decades...based on satellite gauge-adjusted precipitation observations...we show that several regions, such as the southwestern United States, Texas, parts of the Amazon, the Horn of Africa, northern India, and parts of the Mediterranean region, exhibit a significant drying trend.
Warming Global Desertification2013 533(Feng and Fu, 2013) analyzing observations for 1948-2008...we show that global drylands have expanded in the last sixty years
Temporal Kenya Desertification2018 31(Gichenje and Godinho, 2018) Kenya...using trends in GIMMS NDVI and land cover datasets over the 24-year period from 1992 to 2015...the country has experienced persistent negative trends (browning) over 21.6% of the country, and persistent positive trends (greening) in 8.9% of the country.
Warming Australia Crops2017 151(Hochman et al., 2017) show that wheat yields in Australia have stalled since 1990 and investigate the extent to which climate trends account for this observation...water-limited yield potential declined by 27% over a 26 year period from 1990 to 2015. We attribute this decline to reduced rainfall and to rising temperatures.
Temporal California Desertification2011 25(Lam et al., 2011) a 24-year period (1982, 1988, 1994, 2000, and 2006)...the advancement rate of sand within the Kelso Dunes experienced an encroachment rate of approximately 5.9 m3/m/yr, with advancement accelerating towards the latter half
Warming Mongolia Desertification2013 123(Liu et al., 2013) we use a recently developed 21-year (1988-2008) record of satellite based vegetation optical depth (VOD, a proxy for vegetation water content and aboveground biomass), to show that nearly all steppe grasslands in Mongolia experienced significant decreases in VOD. Approximately 60% of the VOD declines can be directly explained by variations in rainfall and surface temperature.
Temporal Africa Drought2012 41(Marshall et al., 2012) this paper, we examine the trends in Ea, precipitation (P), daily maximum temperature (Tmax), and daily minimum temperature (Tmin) on a seasonal basis using a 31 year time series of variable infiltration capacity (VIC) land surface model (LSM) Ea...the historical analysis reveals substantial drying over much of the Sahel and East Africa during the primary growing season
Temporal Africa Drought2014 349Top (Masih et al., 2014) study is based on the review and analysis of droughts occurred during 1900-2013 [in Africa]...Most of the studies based on instrumental records indicate that droughts have become more frequent, intense and widespread during the last 50 years.
Temporal Middle East Dust Storms2018 9(Namdari et al., 2018) events in the Middle East are becoming more frequent and intense in recent years...Precipitation data suggest that long-term reductions in rainfall promoted lower soil moisture and vegetative cover, leading to more intense dust emissions.
Temporal Global Desertification2014 98Top (Spinoni et al., 2014) couple the information obtained from the Koppen-Geiger (KG) climate classification and the FAO aridity index (AI), providing an overview of the most evident global changes in climate regimes from 1951-1980 to 1981-2010...Both KG and AI show that the arid areas globally increased between 1951-1980 and 1981-2010...North-Eastern Brazil, Southern Argentina, the Sahel, Zambia and Zimbabwe, the Mediterranean area, North-Eastern China and Sub-Himalayan India have been identified as areas with a significant increase of drylands extent.
Temporal South America Heat Waves2016 23(Ceccherini et al. 2016) study describes the extreme temperature regime of heat waves and cold waves across South America over recent years (1980-2014)...Results indicate an increase in intensity and in frequency of heat waves, especially in the last 10 years.
Anthropogenic Global Desertification2015 31(Chan and Wu, 2015) 5.7% of the global total land area has shifted toward warmer and drier climate types from 1950-2010 and significant changes include expansion of arid and high-latitude continental climate zones.
Temporal Global Desertification2013 331(Chen and Chen, 2013) is concluded that the most significant change over 1901-2010 is a distinct areal increase of the dry climate...since the 1980s.
Temporal Global Drought2017 142(Dai and Zhao 2017) precipitation and streamflow data and the self-calibrated PDSI_pm all show consistent drying during 1950-2012 over most Africa, East and South Asia, southern Europe, eastern Australia, and many parts of the Americas.
Temporal Europe Heat Waves2014 173(Fischer and Knutti 2014) two gridded data sets, HadEX2 and GHCNDEX, consistently show an intensification of hot extremes ...over large parts of Europe, parts of northern Asia (around Mongolia) by 2-3K in the period 1960-2010...More than a third of the land fraction experienced trends that are larger than 1 K over the period 1960-2010.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2015 696(Fischer and Knutti 2015) show that at the present-day warming of 0.85 C about 18% of the moderate daily precipitation extremes over land are attributable to the observed temperature increase since pre-industrial times
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation2015 230(Lehmann et al. 2015) present the first analysis of record-breaking daily rainfall events using observational data. We show that over the last three decades the number of record-breaking events has significantly increased in the global mean. Globally, this increase has led to 12 % more record-breaking rainfall events over 1981-2010 compared to those expected in stationary time series.
Temporal Global Crops2016 1477(Lesk et al., 2016) we estimate for the first time, to our knowledge, national cereal production losses across the globe resulting from reported extreme weather disasters during 1964-2007. We show that droughts and extreme heat significantly reduced national cereal production by 9-10%...Furthermore, the results highlight ~7% greater production damage from more recent droughts.
Temporal Global Heat Waves2015 63(Mishra et al. 2015; ) observed station data for 217 urban areas across the globe, we show that these urban areas have experienced significant increases (p-value <0.05) in the number of heat waves during the period 1973-2012.
Temporal Global Drought2018 208Top (Pan et al., 2018) vegetation trends during the period 1982-2013...A >60% increase in browning area was found during the study period, and the results consistently indicate that the expansion of browning trends has accelerated since 1994.
Temporal Iberian Peninsula Drought2017 39(Pascoa et al., 2017) long-term evolution of drought in the Iberian Peninsula is analyzed...for the period of 1901-2012...SPEI identified dryer conditions and an increase in the area affected by droughts.
Temporal Asia Drought2015 21(Son and Bae, 2015) the period of 1963-2006...annual precipitation and runoff in the SAC regions appeared to decrease about 12.1% and 27.3%, respectively...Frequency and duration of droughts in the SAC regions were observed to increase about 9.2 and 1.5 months, respectively, and drought severity index intensified to about -0.15.
Temporal Europe (South) Drought2015 120(Spinoni et al., 2015) linear trend analysis shows that drought variables increased in the period 1950-2012 in South-Western Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean and Carpathian regions,
Warming Global Drought2019 105(Spinoni et al., 2019) constructed a database of meteorological drought events from 1951 to 2016...Over North America, central Europe, central Asia, and Australia, the recent progressive temperature increase outbalanced the increase in precipitation causing more frequent and severe droughts.
Warming Iberian Peninsula Drought2014 408(Vicente-Serrano et al., 2014) use high quality climate data from ground meteorological stations in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and robust drought indices to confirm that drought severity has increased in the past five decades, as a consequence of greater atmospheric evaporative demand resulting from temperature rise.
Temporal China Desertification2019 8(Yin et al. 2019) delineated the AHCR of China using information about the balance of the atmospheric water supply and demand collected from 581 meteorological stations over the past 50 years...results indicate that the semi-arid region expanded significantly over the last five decades, mainly in northwest China, northern China, and the Tibetan Plateau and, by the 2000s, had increased by 33.53% relative to its extent in the 1960s.
Warming Africa Violence2014 16(Burke et al., 2014) temperature has the largest average effect by far, with each 1 C increase toward warmer temperatures increasing the frequency of contemporaneous interpersonal conflict by 2.4% and of intergroup conflict by 11.3%
Warming Indonesia Violence2016 13(Caruso et al., 2016) on Indonesia over the period 1993-2003...Results show that an increase of the minimum temperature during the core month of the rice growing season, that is, December, determines an increase in violence stimulated by the reduction in future rice production per capita.
Warming Global Violence2013 1069(Hsiang et al., 2013) meta-analysis of studies that examine populations in the post-1950 era suggests that the magnitude of climate's influence on modern conflict is both substantial and highly statistically significant (P < 0.001). Each 1-SD change in climate toward warmer temperatures or more extreme rainfall increases the frequency of interpersonal violence by 4% and intergroup conflict by 14% (median estimates).
Warming Africa (Sub-Saharan) Violence2017 11(Jun, 2017) empirical results confirm effects of temperature on the incidence of civil conflict. The key findings are as follows: (i) between 1970 and 2012 in sub-Saharan Africa, a high temperature during maize growing season reduced the crop's yield, which in turn increased the incidence of civil conflict.
Warming Sudan Violence2014 38(Maystadt et al., 2014) North and South Sudan between 1997 and 2009...a change in temperature anomalies of 1 standard deviation is found to increase the frequency of violent conflict by 32%...we find that temperature variations may have affected about one quarter (26%) of violent events in Sudan.
Warming Africa (Sub-Saharan) Violence2014 72(O'Loughlin et al., 2014) analysis supports a link between temperature extremes and conflict in sub-Saharan Africa between 1980 and 2012. We find that higher temperatures have the effect of increasing the level of observed conflict in a quasiexperimental research design.
Temporal Global Violence2016 200(Schleussner et al., 2016) on data on armed-conflict outbreaks and climate-related natural disasters for the period 1980-2010. Globally, we find a coincidence rate of 9% regarding armed-conflict outbreak and disaster occurrence such as heat waves or droughts. Our analysis also reveals that, during the period in question, about 23% of conflict outbreaks in ethnically highly fractionalized countries robustly coincide with climatic calamities.
Temporal Africa (Sub-Saharan) Violence2014 78(von Uexkull, 2014) novel high-resolution data on civil conflict events in Sub-Saharan Africa from 1989 to 2008... areas with rainfed croplands see an increased risk of civil conflict violence following drought. There is also some support for the proposition that areas experiencing sustained droughts have a higher risk of conflict
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2005 995(Groisman, 2005) changes in intense precipitation (e.g., the frequency of very heavy precipitation or the upper 0.3% of daily precipitation events) have been analyzed... very heavy precipitation has increased during the period of instrumental observations over most of the contiguous United States....In the midlatitudes, there is a widespread increase in the frequency of very heavy precipitation during the past 50 to 100 yr.
Temporal China Extreme Precipitation2017 66(Ma et al., 2017) precipitation records from over 700 Chinese stations from 1956 to 2005 are analyzed. The results show a significant shift from light to heavy precipitation over eastern China.
Warming Global Heat Waves2013 96(Coumou et al., 2013), the number of local record-breaking monthly temperature extremes is now on average five times larger than expected in a climate with no long-term warming...Summertime records, which are associated with prolonged heat waves, increased by more than a factor of ten in some continental regions including parts of Europe, Africa, southern Asia and Amazonia.
Warming Europe (Central) Hantavirus2009 79(Klempa, 2009) average temperatures in West-Central Europe have been associated with more frequent Puumala hantavirus outbreaks, through high seed production (mast year) and high bank vole densities
Warming Nigeria Desertification2017 42(Obioha, 2017) the recent times, due to the increasing rate of global warming, the northeast region of Nigeria has been experiencing continuous climatic change characterized by drastic reduction in rainfall, increase in the rate of dryness and heat, which makes it a fast growing arid environment, with depletion in the amount of water, flora and fauna resources on the land.
Anthropogenic Global Drought1998 308(Dai et al., 1998) the late 1970s, however, there have been some increases in the combined percentage areas in severe drought and severe moisture surplus, resulting from increases in either the drought area (e.g., over the Sahel, eastern Asia and southern Africa) or both the drought and wet areas (e.g., over the U.S. and Europe)...These changes are qualitatively consistent with those expected from increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Anthropogenic Global Drought2004 1544(Dai et al., 2004) global very dry areas, defined as PDSI < āˆ’3.0, have more than doubled since the 1970s, with a large jump in the early 1980s due to an ENSO-induced precipitation decrease and a subsequent expansion primarily due to surface warming...these results provide observational evidence for the increasing risk of droughts as anthropogenic global warming progresses and produces both increased temperatures and increased drying.
Anthropogenic Australia Drought2004 240(Nicholls, 2004) over nearly all of Australia during the cooler half of the year (May-October) was well below average in 2002...drought conditions (precipitation minus evaporation) were worse than in previous recent periods with similarly low rainfall (1982, 1994). Mean minimum temperatures were also much higher during the 2002 drought than in the 1982 and 1994 droughts...The possibility that the enhanced greenhouse effect is increasing the severity of Australian droughts...needs to be considered.
Temporal China Drought2009 331(Zhou et al., 2009) the recent decades, the EASM [East Asian summer monsoon] has been weakening from the end of the 1970s which results in a "southern China flood and northern China drought" rainfall pattern...the pronounced weakening tendency of the EASM in recent decades is unprecedented.
Warming Europe Tick-Based Diseases2008 94(Süss et al., 2008) climate change has improved the living conditions of ticks substantially. One of the consequences is an increased distribution of ticks and a rise of the TBD incidence rate.
Warming Germany Tick-Based Diseases2008 77(Dautel et al., 2008) appears to be the first time that extended or even continuous winter activity of I. ricinus nymphs and adults has been demonstrated in Central Europe...I. ricinus now can be active during the whole winter, a time of the year when these ticks historically have been dormant when the weather is normal
Warming Czech Republic Tick-Based Diseases2008 57(Materna et al., 2008) with historical data revealed that the I. ricinus upper distribution limit shifted from the former 700-800 m limit at least up to 1100 m above sea level (a.s.l.) during the last two decades...The causes of tick expansion could be found when analysing long-term (1961-2005) climatic data from the Krkonoe Mts., which showed a systematic and significant rise of the mean annual air temperature by 1.4 C at 1000 m a.s.l.
Warming Europe Tick-Based Diseases2000 188(Lindgren et al., 2000) examined whether a reported northward expansion of the geographic distribution limit of the disease-transmitting tick Ixodes ricinus and an increased tick density between the early 1980s and mid-1990s in Sweden was related to climatic changes...Our results indicate that the reported northern shift in the distribution limit of ticks is related to fewer days during the winter seasons with low minimum temperatures, i.e., below -12 degrees C
Warming Sweden Tick-Based Diseases2001 242(Lindgren and Gustafson, 2001) incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Sweden has substantially increased since the mid-1980s...The findings indicate that the increase in TBE incidence since the mid-1980s is related to the period's change towards milder winters and early arrival of spring.
Warming Europe (Central) Tick-Based Diseases2004 13(Zeman and Bene, 2004) tests proved that the TBE ceiling has gradually moved upwards in the course of the last three decades. Although the dependence of TBE on temperature is not a direct one and various factors could be involved, an impact of climate warming on the vertical disease distribution in Central Europe is evident.
Warming Czech Republic Tick-Based Diseases2004 6(Daniel et al., 2004) 1993 the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) showed a sharp rise in Central Europe and has remained high since...Based on these data we conclude that the increased TBE incidence rates reported in 1993 and afterwards are attributable to a more abundant occurrence of I. ricinus ticks and that their higher abundance is due to modified climatic conditions in the last decade
Temporal Global Floods2002 1151Top (Milly et al., 2002) both streamflow measurements and numerical simulations...We find that the frequency of great floods increased substantially during the twentieth century.
Warming Siberia Fires2016 85(Ponomarev et al., 2016) number and burned area temporal dynamics within all of Siberia and along a south-north transect in central Siberia (45 73 N) were studied...Both the number of forest fires and the size of the burned area increased during recent decades (p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found between forest fires, burned areas and air temperature (r = 0.5) and drought index.
Temporal Canada Fires2018 157(Hanes et al., 2018) paper presents fire-regime trends [in Canada]...for two time periods, 1959-2015 and 1980-2015...results suggest that large fires have been getting larger over the last 57 years and that the fire season has been starting approximately one week earlier and ending one week later...Overall, Canadian forests appear to have been engaged in a trajectory towards more active fire regimes over the last half century.
Temporal Global Fires2015 887(Jolly et al., 2015) 1979 to 2013...we show that fire weather seasons have lengthened across 29.6 million km^2 (25.3%) of the Earth's vegetated surface, resulting in an 18.7% increase in global mean fire weather season length...and an increased global frequency of long fire weather seasons across 62.4 million km2 (53.4%) during the second half of the study period.
Anthropogenic United States Fires2016 1234Top (Abatzoglou and Williams, 2016) estimate that human-caused climate change contributed to an additional 4.2 million ha of forest fire area during 1984-2015, nearly doubling the forest fire area expected in its absence.
Anthropogenic Australia Fires2018 70(Dowdy, 2018) weather conditions are examined throughout Australia from gridded daily data from 1950 to 2016...there is a clear trend toward more dangerous conditions during spring and summer in southern Australia, including increased frequency and magnitude of extremes, as well as indicating an earlier start to the fire season. Changes in fire weather conditions are attributable at least in part to anthropogenic climate change, including in relation to increasing temperatures.
Warming Greece Fires2013 59(Koutsias et al., 2013) fire records and meteorological observations, spanning more than 1 century (1894-2010), were gathered and assembled in a database... fire occurrence, expressed as the annual number of fires and total burnt area, was strongly correlated with the mean maximum and the absolute maximum air temperature
Anthropogenic Switzerland Extreme Precipitation2016 85(Scherrer et al., 2016) in intensity and frequency of daily heavy precipitation and hot temperature extremes are analyzed in Swiss observations for the years 1901 - 2014/2015...Over 90% of the series show increases in heavy precipitation intensity, expressed as annual maximum daily precipitation...and in heavy precipitation frequency, expressed as the number of events greater than the 99th percentile of daily precipitation...The identified trends are unlikely to be random and are consistent with climate model projections
Temporal Global Heat Waves2014 306Top (Russo et al., 2014) show that the percentage of global area affected by heat waves has increased in recent decades...In the 11 years between 2002 and 2012, the percentage of global area affected by moderate (HWMI >=2), severe (HWMI >=3), and extreme (HWMI >=4) heat waves was threefold greater than in the previous periods (1980-1990 and 1991-2001)
Anthropogenic Northern Hemisphere Extreme Precipitation2011 1408(Min, 2011) we show that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the observed intensification of heavy precipitation events found over approximately two-thirds of data-covered parts of Northern Hemisphere land areas.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2004 443(Groisman et al., 2004) the contiguous United States, precipitation, temperature, streamflow, and heavy and very heavy precipitation have increased during the twentieth century...much of the increase in heavy and very heavy precipitation has occurred during the past three decades.
Warming Tropics Extreme Precipitation2010 176(Allan et al., 2010) changes in tropical precipitation from satellite data and climate models are assessed...The Special Sensor Microwave Imager data indicate an increased frequency of the heaviest events with warming.
Temporal Eastern Mediterranean Heat Waves2019 25(Founda et al., 2019) historical air temperature data at a number of stations at the Eastern Mediterranean...observational data reveals significant changes in the seasonality of hot extremes and specifically lengthening of their period, which in some cases exceeds 10 days per decade
Temporal China Apparent Temperature2019 1(Li et al., 2019) paper demonstrates that the [apparent temperature] over China, as revealed by daily station- observed data, has generally increased faster than the [surface air temperature] during summertime in the past 50 years (1968-2017).
Anthropogenic Atlantic Ocean Hurricanes2019 15(Bhatia et al., 2019), we utilize two observational datasets to calculate 24-hour wind speed changes over the period 1982-2009...our results suggest a detectable increase of Atlantic intensification rates with a positive contribution from anthropogenic forcing.
Warming China Crops2018 18(Zhang and Hu, 2018) corn growing season had a drying trend during 1981-2009 in the whole study region, and this trend reach 90% confidence level over half of the region...drought is becoming serious under global warming. There is a positive correlation between corn yield losses and drought hazards.
Warming China Crops2015 11(Zhang et al., 2015) results indicate that a significant warming-drying trend existed in the northern agro-pastural ecotone of China from 1980 to 2009, and this trend significantly decreased crop (spring wheat, naked oat, and potato) yields. Furthermore, the yield decreased by 16.2%-8.4% with a 1 C increase in maximum temperature and decreased by 6.6% - 11.8% with a 10% decrease in precipitation
Anthropogenic United States Thunderstorms2013 45Top (Sander et al., 2013) normalized economic and insured losses in the United States east of the Rockies from the period 1970-2009 (March-September) exhibit higher peaks and greater variability in the last two decades than in the preceding two decades...from these findings, we conclude that it is predominantly the change in hazard over time--rather than the change in destructible wealth or vulnerability--that has driven up normalized losses...a high probability is assigned to climatic variations primarily driving the changes in normalized losses since was demonstrated that the findings presented are consistent with the expected effects of anthropogenic climate change.
Warming Thailand Crops2018 77(Prabnakorn t al., 2018) this paper, we investigate climatic conditions of the past 30 years (1984-2013) and assess the impacts of the recent climate trends on rice yields in the Mun River Basin in northeast Thailand...Our results indicate that the total yield losses due to past climate trends are rather low, in the range of < 50 kg/ha per decade (3% of actual average yields). In general, increasing trends in minimum and maximum temperatures lead to modest yield losses.
Warming Global Crops2019 274Top (Ray et al., 2019) statistics were compiled from 1974-2013 for ten crops across ~20,000 political units globally...this is the first observational global study reporting the impact of current climate change on the yields of the top ten global crops...among the top three global cereals, recent yields have decreased for rice (-0.3% or ~-1.6 million tons (MT) annually) and wheat (-0.9% or ~-5.0 MT annually)...we found that crop yields across Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and Australia had in general decreased because of climate change, though exceptions are present. Similar variations are seen in other crops and regions all over the world...recent climate change has likely reduced overall consumable food calories in these ten crops by ~1%.
Temporal Sierra Leone Drought2019 8(Wadsworth et al., 2019) Leone on the west coast of Africa has a monsoon-type climate...changes in rainfall over the last four decades are examined...there is evidence for a significant reduction in annual rainfall in the northwest.
Temporal United States Heat Waves2020 22(Tavakol et al., 2020) the period 1948-2017 for the Mississippi River Basin (MRB), which covers approximately 41% of the Contiguous United States...more frequent and longer heat waves were observed in western and north-western MRB...a significant increase happened starting in 1994 in the percentage of area with a HW longer than 10 consecutive days.
Warming Greece Economic Impacts2020 12(Gratton et al., 2020) series of meteorological parameters at ten Greek airports since 1955 indicated the level of climate change in the Eastern Mediterranean area...for airports where aeroplane maximum take-off mass is a performance limited function of runway length, and where minimum temperatures have increased and/or mean headwind components decreased, climate change has already had a marked impact on the economic activity in the airline industry
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2020 1(Brown, 2020) trends in extreme hourly precipitation time series were examined at 50 first-order weather stations across the Southeast United States (SeUS) from 1960-2017...the numerical value that defines a (station specific) 90th percentile hourly accumulation significantly(p.< 0.05) increased at 36% (18/50) of the stations.
Temporal China Hurricanes2020 23(Liu et al., 2020) study investigates the trend in destructive potential of landfalling tropical cyclones (TCs) in terms of power dissipation index (PDI) over mainland China in the period of 1980-2018. Results show that both the accumulated PDI and averaged PDI after landfall show significant increasing trends.
Temporal Horn of Africa Drought2019 47(Haile et al., 2019) results showed that despite regional differences, an overall increasing tendency of drought was observed across the [Greater Horn of Africa] over the past 52 yr, with trends of change of -0.0017 yr-1, -0.0036 yr-1, -0.0031 yr-1, and -0.0023 yr-1 for SPEI-01, SPEI-03, SPEI-06, and SPEI-12, respectively.
Temporal Nigeria Drought2018 81(Shiru et al., 2018) gridded rainfall and temperature data for the period 1961-2010 [for Nigeria] with spatial resolutions of 0.5deg were used...The occurrences of droughts, particularly moderate droughts with smaller areal extents, were found to increase for all of the seasons
Warming Nigeria Drought2019 70(Shiru et al., 2019) for the period 1901-2010...a general decrease in the return periods of droughts indicates more frequent droughts during all cropping seasons of Nigeria. Therefore, it can be concluded that the rising temperature due to global warming would increase drought severity and frequency in all the cropping seasons of Nigeria.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2020 29Top (Kunkel et al., 2020) of extreme precipitation (EP) using various combinations of average return intervals (ARIs) of 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 years...were calculated regionally across the contiguous United States. Nationally, trends are upward...for both the frequency of extreme events and the proportion of total precipitation contributed by the extreme events...the trends for the frequency of extreme events are largest for ARIs of 20 years, the rarest event considered here.
Temporal Bangladesh Drought2019 29(Kamruzzaman et al., 2019) Bangladesh...monthly precipitation data for 36 years (1980-2015) obtained from 27 metrological stations, were used in this study...The frequency of droughts in all categories significantly increased during the last quinquennial period (2011 to 2015).
Temporal Africa (West) Extreme Precipitation2019 23(Nkrumah et al., 2019) study makes use of a large set of daily rain gauge data covering Southern West Africa...from 1950 to 2014...During the first rainy season (April-July), mean annual rainfall is observed to have a minor trend due to less frequent but more intense rainfall mainly along the coast of Southern West Africa (SWA) over the last two decades.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2020 6Top (Tharu & Dhakal, 2020) precipitation time series over the period of 65 years (1950-2014) for 1108 sites was used for the analysis. Our results show that changes in upper quantiles of the distributions of the extreme precipitation (for both ADM and MM) have occurred at a much higher rate than previously believed.
Temporal Africa (Sub-Saharan) Malaria2019 1(Carlson et al., 2019) test for range shifts using a new comprehensive dataset of Anopheles occurrences in sub-Saharan Africa, with over 500,000 species-locality pair records spanning 1898 to 2016...we estimate range-shifting species gained 1.56 meters of elevation annually, and moved southward 6.28 km per year in their outer range limits, a full order of magnitude faster than some 'rapid' shifts observed in the literature.
Temporal Caribbean Drought2017 54(Herrera and Ault, 2017) change is expected to increase the severity and frequency of drought in the Caribbean...this work introduces a first of its kind high-resolution drought dataset for the Caribbean region from 1950 to 2016...linear trends in the scPDSI show a significant drying in the study area, averaging an scPDSI change of -0.09 decade-1 (p < 0.05).
Warming Global Drought2019 25Top (Peng et al., 2019) the late 1940s, drylands have increased at a rate of 512,180 km2/decade. The main feature is the sharp jump in drylands expansion in the 1980s, with the area of drylands increasing 3.1% (1.90 x 106km2) between 1980 and 2008 compared to 1948-1979...rapid warming since the 1980s has become an increasing important cause of the recent global drying trend.
Anthropogenic China Drought2020 18Top (Li et al., 2020) results show that summer hot drought events over northeastern China increased from 1961 to 2005...increased greenhouse gases emission forcing (GHG), and anthropogenic forcing (ANT) can largely reproduce the spatial and temporal features of the trends of summer hot drought events over northeastern China.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2017 82(Huang, 2017) averaged, both annual total and extreme precipitation across the Northeast increased significantly since 1901, with changepoints occurring in 2002 and 1996, respectively. Annual extreme precipitation experienced a larger increase than total precipitation; extreme precipitation from 1996 to 2014 is 53% higher than from 1901 to 1995.
Anthropogenic Australia Fires2019 59(Harris and Lucas, 2019) fire weather shows spatiotemporal variability on interannual and multi-decadal time scales...on longer time scales (45 years), linear trends are upward at most stations...we propose that anthropogenic climate change is the primary driver of the trend, through both higher mean temperatures and potentially through associated shifts in large-scale rainfall patterns.
Temporal United States Fires2014 758(Dennison et al., 2014) 1984-2011...over the western U.S. and in a majority of ecoregions, we found significant, increasing trends in the number of large fires and/or total large fire area per year. Trends were most significant for southern and mountain ecoregions, coinciding with trends toward increased drought severity. For all ecoregions combined, the number of large fires increased at a rate of seven fires per year, while total fire area increased at a rate of 355 km2 per year.
Warming Baja California Drought2020 5(Guerrero and Kretzschmar, 2020) detected an abrupt downward change in annual precipitation in 1998, and a continuous period of reduction in precipitation rate from 1999 to 2016 (at least 17 years)...and an increase in dry seasonal/annual periods after 1998...also, we detected an upward change in maximum temperature...and an increase in dry seasonal/annual periods after 1998...the decrease of precipitation and increase in temperature have had negative impacts on groundwater availability that have affected agriculture and population.
Anthropogenic Mediterranean Basin Leishmaniasis2018 41(Chalghaf et al., 2018) to climate change, the geographical distribution of sand flies during the last decades has shifted northward from latitudes below 45 N in southern Europe to latitudes just above 50 central Europe, some autochthone leishmaniasis cases are being recorded in regions traditionally regarded as leishmaniasis-free.
Temporal China Drought2020 11(Han et al., 2020) China from 1950 to 2009...the annual and seasonal drought intensities have increased slightly in the past 60 years, while the disturbed area has broadened significantly, especially in eastern China which has become much drier than before.
Temporal Iran Desertification2020 40(Pour et al., 2020) Iran during 1951-2016...the results revealed an increase in annual and seasonal aridity in Iran, which caused expansion of arid land...might have severe consequences on agricultural production and food security of the country.
Warming United States Extreme Precipitation2019 43Top (Wright et al., 2019) events that exceed common engineering design criteria, including 100-year storms, have increased in frequency in most parts of the United States since 1950...we show that in most locations, these increases are likely due to climate warming.
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation2019 192Top (Papalexiou and Montanari, 2019) we perform a global analysis of 8,730 daily precipitation records focusing on the 1964-2013 period when the global warming accelerates...globally, over the last decade of the studied period we find 7% more extreme events than the expected number.
Temporal Brazil Drought2020 40(Costa et al., 2020) the northeast region of Brazil for the period of most weather stations where there is a significant increase in consecutive dry days, there is also a trend of significant increase in consecutive wet days, thereby intensifying the seasonality, with the dry seasons becoming drier and the rainy seasons wetter.
Warming Global Drought2020 7(Zhang et al., 2020) 1980-2010, due to significant global warming (0.30 C decade -1) the global mean occurrence frequency of [short-term concurrent hot and dry extreme events] has a slightly increasing trend (0.34% decade -1)
Warming China Crops2020 8(Bai & Xiao, 2020) on the observed data from 51 agro-meteorological stations across China during 1981-2010...the results indicated that climate change during the past three decades had a negative impact on rice growth and development.
Warming Europe Drought2019 56(Manning et al., 2019)[In Europe] during the summer months of June, July and August...over the historical period 1950-2013...we find an increased probability of dry and hot events throughout Europe where rising temperatures are found to be the main driver of this change...the results point to a predominant thermodynamic response of dry and hot events to global warming and reaffirm previous research that soil moisture drought events are setting in faster and becoming more severe.
Anthropogenic China Drought2017 83Top (Chen and Sun, 2017) occurrences across China increased consistently during 1951-2014, especially during the recent twenty years...external natural forcings were mainly responsible for the variability of droughts and anthropogenic influences for their increasing trends, suggesting that anthropogenic warming has increased hot drought occurrences, associated risks and impacts across China.
Temporal United States Hurricanes2010 105(Kunkel et al., 2010) time series for 935 long-term U.S. climate stations were analyzed to identify daily extreme events associated with tropical cyclones...during 1994-2008, the number of TC-associated events was more than double the long-term average while the total annual national number of events was about 25% above the long-term (1895-2008) average.
Temporal United States Heat Waves2020 19(Keelings and Moradkhani, 2020) the United States during 1981-2018... the spatiotemporal evolution of combined heat wave characteristics shows considerable increases during this period and indicates a substantial increase in heat wave hazard across the United States...extreme heat events have become more likely through the record as evidenced by the statistically significant (at the 0.05 significance level) upward trend in AHSCI (9.5 decade -1) for the continental United States.
Temporal China Heat Waves2020 22(Luo et al., 2020) observational and reanalysis datasets, here we investigate the heatwave behaviors in arid northwest China (ANC) during 1961-2014...over the long-term period, the heatwave in ANC exhibits significant intensifying trends in terms of increasing frequency (0.40 events decade-1), prolonging duration (1.67 days decade-1), and strengthening amplitude (0.32 C decade-1)
Anthropogenic Global Extreme Precipitation2013 187(Zhang et al., 2013) study provides estimates of the human contribution to the observed widespread intensification of precipitation extremes...over the Northern Hemisphere land area for 1951-2005...the effect of anthropogenic forcings can be detected in extreme precipitation observations. We estimate that human influence has intensified annual maximum 1 day precipitation in sampled Northern Hemisphere locations by 3.3%.
Temporal Spain Drought2014 14(Andrade & Belo-Pereira, 2014) western and central regions of [Iberian Peninsula] increase in the drought frequency since the 1980s is found during the months of winter and spring. These outcomes are consistent with the downward precipitation trends detected for these seasons in several studies.
Warming Canada Fires2006 345(Kasischke & Turetsky, 2006) the early 1960s, increases in the number of individual fire events and in the size of fires both contributed to more frequent occurrence of large fire years across the NABR...these observations are consistent with predictions that climate warming will result in longer fire seasons.
Warming Global Fisheries2020 811(Boyce, Lewis and Worm, 2010) account for approximately half the production of organic matter on Earth. We observe declines in eight out of ten ocean regions, and estimate a global rate of decline of 1% of the global median per year...long-term declining trends are related to increasing sea surface temperatures.
Warming China Groundwater2007 502(Cheng & Wu, 2007) studies have reported permafrost degradation under climate warming in the 20th century in the Northern Hemisphere...long-term temperature measurements indicate that the lower altitudinal limit of permafrost has moved up by 25 m in the north during the last 30 years...permafrost degradation is one of the main causes responsible for a dropping groundwater table at the source areas of the Yangtze River and Yellow River, which in turn results in lowering lake water levels, drying swamps and shrinking grasslands.
Warming China Floods2007 165(Jiang, Su and Hartmann, 2007) suspected impact of climate warming on precipitation distribution is examined in the Yangtze River Basin. Daily precipitation data for 147 meteorological stations from 1961-2000 and monthly discharge data for three stations in the basin have been analyzed...the rainstorms have aggravated floods in the middle and lower Yangtze River Basin in recent decades. The observed trends in precipitation and rainstorms are possibly caused by variations of atmospheric circulation (weakened summer monsoon) under climate warming.
Warming Lake Tanganyika Fisheries2007 475(O'Reilly et al., 2003) we present evidence that climate warming is diminishing productivity in Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. In parallel with regional warming patterns since the beginning of the twentieth century...primary productivity may have decreased by about 20%, implying a roughly 30% decrease in fish yields.
Warming Global Hurricanes2020 153Top (Kossin et al., 2020) the homogenized global TC intensity record is extended to the 39-y period 1979-2017, and statistically significant (at the 95% confidence level) increases are identified. Increases and trends are found in the exceedance probability and proportion of major (Saffir-Simpson categories 3 to 5) TC intensities ... Between the early and latter halves of the time period, the major TC exceedance probability increases by about 8% per decade
Warming Global Hurricanes2020 8Top (Elsner, 2020) strongest tropical cyclones have continued to get stronger...Here I show that this is the case with increases in the upper quantile intensities of global tropical cyclones amounting to between 3.5 and 4.5% in the period 2007-2019 relative to the earlier base period (1981-2006)
Anthropogenic United States Reduced Streamflow2020 56(Overpeck & Udall, 2020) the American Southwest, where declining flows in the region's two most important rivers, the Colorado (Fig. 1) and Rio Grande, have been attributed in part to increasing temperatures caused by human activities...warming is also causing flow declines in the northern Rocky Mountains and in the largest river basin in the United States, the Missouri
Temporal Bangladesh Extreme Precipitation2010 158(Shahid, 2010) study of the variability of the extreme rainfall events in Bangladesh during the time period 1958-2007 has been carried out in this general, an increasing trend in heavy precipitation days and decreasing trends in consecutive dry days are observed.
Warming Global Heat Waves2020 175(Raymond et al., 2020) comprehensive evaluation of weather station data shows that some coastal subtropical locations have already reported a TW of 35 C and that extreme humid heat overall has more than doubled in frequency since 1979
Warming North Sea Fisheries2005 1237(Perry et al., 2005) show that the distributions of both exploited and nonexploited North Sea fishes have responded markedly to recent increases in sea temperature, with nearly two-thirds of species shifting in mean latitude or depth or both over 25 years...species with shifting distributions have faster life cycles and smaller body sizes than nonshifting species
Warming Global Heat Waves2020 61(Li et al., 2020) historical ~1 C of global-mean surface air temperature increase above preindustrial levels has already increased the population annually exposed to at least one day with wet bulb globe temperature exceeding 33 C (the reference safety value for humans at rest per the ISO-7243 standard) from 97 million to 275 million.
Warming Montenegro Drought2020 5(Buric & Doderovic, 2020) the period 1951-2018...Podgorica's climate has become more arid and extreme, as the number of days with precipitation >= 1 mm (R1) has significantly decreased.
Anthropogenic Global Extreme Precipitation2020 31Top (Paik et al., 2020) 1951-2015...anthropogenic greenhouse gas influence is robustly detected in the observed intensification of extreme precipitation over the global land and most of the sub-regions considered
Anthropogenic North America Extreme Precipitation2020 68(Kirchmeier-Young & Zhang, 2020) forcing, dominated by human influence, has contributed to the increase in frequency and intensity of regional precipitation extremes in North America
Temporal Iran Heat Waves2020 13(Fathian et al., 2020) temperature and precipitation data of 76 synoptic stations were selected for trend analysis throughout Iran during the period 1981-2010...the results of 11 extreme temperature-related indices showed, in general, warm indices such as the number of warm days (TX90p), warm nights (TN90p), and warm spell duration (WSDI) had an increasing trend
Anthropogenic Chile Drought2015 189(Boisier et al., 2015) precipitation decline, of consistent direction but of larger amplitude than obtained in simulations with historical climate forcing, has been observed in central Chile since the late 1970s...unlikely to be driven exclusively by natural phenomena but rather consistent with the simulated regional effect of anthropogenic climate change.
Temporal Africa Crops2014 68(Shi and Tao, 2014) of maize yields and climate variables in the maize growing seasons were used to assess the vulnerability of African maize yields to climate change and variability with different levels of management at country scale between 1961 and 2010...the negative impacts of increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation and SPEI on maize yields progressively increased at the whole continent scale over the time period studied.
Temporal Iran Drought2014 107(Golian et al., 2014) 1980 to 2013...the Mann-Kendall trend test shows that the northern, northwestern, and central parts of Iran have experienced significant drying trends at a 95 % confidence level.
Anthropogenic Syria Drought2012 253(Hoerling et al., 2012) change in wintertime Mediterranean precipitation toward drier conditions has likely occurred over 1902-2010 whose magnitude cannot be reconciled with internal variability alone. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing are key attributable factors for this increased drying.
Temporal United States Heat Waves1998 118(Gaffen & Ross, 1998) we show that the frequency of extreme heat-stress events in the United States, caused by extremely hot and humid days as well as by heatwaves lasting for several days, has increased over the period from 1949 to 1995.
Warming Global Heat Waves2017 354(Diffenbaugh et al., 2017) find that historical warming has increased the severity and probability of the hottest month and hottest day of the year at >80% of the available observational area...79% of the observed area exhibits a statistically significant trend in peak summer monthly temperature.
Anthropogenic Global Heat Waves2016 55Top (Knutson & Ploshay, 2016) a heat stress metric we use a simplified wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index...our analysis suggests that there has been a detectable anthropogenic increase in mean summertime heat stress since 1973, both globally and in most land regions analyzed.
Temporal United States Heat Waves2012 195(Smith et al., 2012) the period 1979-2011 across the Continental United States...positive trends (increases in number of heat wave days per year) were greatest in the Southeast and Great Plains regions, where more than 12% of the land area experienced significant increases in the number of heat wave days per year for the majority of heat wave indices.
Temporal Australia Fires2012 100(Clarke et al., 2012) data set of observed fire weather in Australia from 1973-2010 is analysed for trends using the McArthur Forest Fire Danger Index (FFDI)...the multi-station mean shows that on average across Australia, there has been an increase in annual cumulative FFDI since 1973 of 212 points per decade.
Anthropogenic Australia Drought2014 106(Delworth & Zeng, 2014) in austral autumn and winter has declined over parts of southern and especially southwestern Australia in the past few our simulations, many aspects of the observed regional rainfall decline over southern and southwest Australia are reproduced in response to anthropogenic changes in levels of greenhouse gases and ozone in the atmosphere
Anthropogenic Global Hurricanes2019 242Top (Knutson et al., 2019) balance of evidence suggests detectable anthropogenic contributions to...increased global average intensity of the strongest TCs since early 1980s, increase in global proportion of TCs reaching category 4 or 5 intensity in recent decades.
Warming United States Fires2020 210(Goss et al., 2020) show that state-wide increases in autumn temperature (~1 C) and decreases in autumn precipitation (~30%) over the past four decades have contributed to increases in aggregate fire weather indices (+20%). As a result, the observed frequency of autumn days with extreme (95th percentile) fire weather which we show are preferentially associated with extreme autumn wildfires has more than doubled in California since the early 1980s.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2019 7(Paerl et al., 2019) of continuous rainfall records for coastal NC since 1898 reveals a period of unprecedentedly high precipitation since the late-1990's, and a trend toward increasingly high precipitation associated with tropical cyclones over the last 120 years.
Temporal China Extreme Precipitation2011 15(Liu et al., 2011) China over the period of 1960-2000...there has been an increasing trend in the frequency of precipitation exceeding the long-term mean 97.5th percentile and 99th percentile values.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2016 770(Donat et al., 2016) we investigate changes in these two aspects in the world's dry and wet regions using observations and global climate models...extreme daily precipitation averaged over both dry and wet regimes shows robust increases...this intensification has implications for the risk of flooding as the climate warms, particularly for the world's dry regions.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2015 55(Guilbert et al., 2015) data from 222 stations in 10 northeastern states are analyzed...with record lengths varying between 51 and 174 years...the study region is experiencing an increase in the magnitude of high-intensity precipitation events.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2013 375(Kunkel et al., 2013) total amount of precipitation accumulated on days when precipitation exceeds the 99th percentile for daily amounts, indicates a highly statistically significant upward trend for the period of 1957-2010 for the same set of regions (Midwest, Southeast, and Northeast) and the United States as a whole.
Temporal Korea Extreme Precipitation2011 108(Jung et al., 2011) spatial and temporal variability of precipitation in Korea were investigated using 183 weather station data for 1973-2005...the increase of annual precipitation is mainly associated with the increase of frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation during summer season...this variation of precipitation is likely to increase flood and drought risk.
Warming Global Hurricanes2016 27(Xu et al., 2016) empirical relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and the maximum potential intensification rate (MPIR) of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the North Atlantic has been developed based on the best-track TC data and the observed SST during 1988-2014...results from this study show a nonlinear increasing trend of the MPIR with increasing SST.
Warming United States Hurricanes2015 90(Estrada et al., 2015) on records of geophysical data, we identify an upward trend in both the number and intensity of hurricanes in the North Atlantic basin as well as in the number of loss-generating tropical cyclone records in the United States that is consistent with the smoothed global average rise in surface air temperature...we identify an upward trend in economic losses between 1900 and 2005 that cannot be explained by commonly used socioeconomic variables.
Warming Global Hurricanes2015 5(Fraza & Elsner, 2015) climatic influence of sea-surface temperature (SST) on intensification is examined for North Atlantic hurricanes by averaging hourly intensity increases from best-track data over the period 1986-2013...on average, mean intensification increases by 16% [(9, 20)% uncertainty interval] for every 1 C increase in mean SST.
Temporal Global Hurricanes2013 100(Kossin et al., 2013) create a more temporally consistent record of tropical cyclone intensity within the period trends deduced using quantile regression are shown. In the best track, the trend in the mean lifetime maximum intensity is about +2 m s-1 decade-1 and is statistically significant.
Warming Global Hurricanes2015 52(Kang & Elsner, 2015) calculate an average increase in global tropical cyclone intensity of 1.3 m s-1 over the past 30 years of ocean warming occurring at the expense of 6.1 tropical cyclones worldwide.
Warming Global Hurricanes2012 23(Kishtawal et al., 2012) all the basins, the rate of Tropical Cyclone intensification from 64 kt to first peak of intensity maxima (global average value = 104 kt) was found to be positive...the trends indicate that the TCs now intensify from 64 kt to 104 kt nearly 9 hours earlier than they did 25 years back...increasing TC intensification may partly be attributed to the rate of ocean warming at different basins.
Warming Pacific Ocean Hurricanes2016 228(Mei & Xie, 2016) the past 37 years, typhoons that strike East and Southeast Asia have intensified by 12-15%, with the proportion of storms of categories 4 and 5 having doubled or even tripled...we find that the increased intensity of landfalling typhoons is due to strengthened intensification rates, which in turn are tied to locally enhanced ocean surface warming on the rim of East and Southeast Asia.
Temporal Pacific Ocean Hurricanes2012 29(Kang & Elsner, 2012) consensus of TC trends between the two agencies over the period is interpreted as fewer but stronger events since 1984, even with the lower power dissipation index (PDI) in the western North Pacific in recent years.
Warming United States Floods2015 316(Mallakpour & Villarini, 2015), we show that while observational records (774 stream gauge stations) from the central United States present limited evidence of significant changes in the magnitude of floodpeaks, strong evidence points to an increasing frequency of flooding. These changes in flood hydrology result from changes in both seasonal rainfall and temperature across this region.
Warming United States Reduced Streamflow2009 193(Luce & Holden, 2009) changing climate and water cycle of the Western U.S. are impacting water resources...the driest 25% of years are getting drier across the majority of the Pacific Northwest. The change is substantial, with most streams showing decreases exceeding 29% and some showing decreases approaching 50% between 1948 and 2006.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2008 43Top (Trenberth, 2008) is a direct influence of global warming on changes in precipitation and heavy rains...globally averaged over the land area with sufficient data, the percentage contribution to total annual precipitation from very wet days (upper 5%) has increased in the past 50 years.
Warming Europe (Central) Extreme Precipitation2020 22(Zeder & Fischer, 2020) of long-term (1901-2013) daily precipitation records from a densely sampled Central European station network, spanning Austria, Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands, are scaled with Northern Hemispheric and regional temperature anomalies...across Central Europe, an overall intensification and a positive scaling signal with Northern Hemispheric temperature is detected in annual, summer, and winter single-day to monthly maximum precipitation.
Warming Global Hurricanes2010 277(Menendez & Woodworth, 2010) sea level (MSL) has generally increased worldwide during the 20th century due to the thermal expansion of sea water, the melting of ice sheets and glaciers, and the hydrological exchanges between the land and the ocean...there has indeed been an increase in extreme high water levels worldwide since 1970...results show that the MSL rise is the major reason for the rise in extreme high water at most stations.
Temporal United States Tornadoes2016 65(Tippett et al., 2016) extreme value analysis, we find that the frequency of U.S. outbreaks with many tornadoes is increasing and that it is increasing faster for more extreme outbreaks...the estimated number of tornadoes in the 5-year most extreme outbreak roughly doubles from 40 in 1965 to nearly 80 in 2015.
Warming China Heat Waves2020 16Top (Xie et al., 2020) the 1960s, the frequencies of the mild, moderate, severe, and extreme heat waves in China have increased significantly with rates of 7.5, 4.3, 1.4, and 1.8 events per year, respectively.
Temporal Iran Extreme Precipitation2020 3(Mahbod and Rafiee, 2020) spatial and temporal changes of very wet days across Iran was assessed, 1985-2013...RS95 (RS95gm) results showed a higher frequency of extreme events across Iran.
Temporal Turkey Heat Waves2010 227(Kuglitsch et al., 2010) the 1960s, the mean heat wave intensity, heat wave length and heat wave number across the eastern Mediterranean region have increased by a factor of 7.6 +/- 1.3, 7.5 +/- 1.3 and 6.2 +/- 1.1, respectively.
Temporal France Heat Waves2007 330(Della-Marta, 2007) the period 1880 to 2005 the length of summer heat waves over Western Europe has doubled and the frequency of hot days has almost tripled
Warming China Heat Waves2020 21(Deng et al., 2020) China (SWC) has suffered from increasing frequency of heat wave (HW) in recent summers...based on ERA-5 reanalysis, it is found that the SWC summer HWs are significantly correlated with sea-ice losses in the Barents Sea, Kara Sea and the Arctic pole.
Warming Iraq Fires2020 7(Rasul et al., 2020) 2001 to 2019...the trend of burned areas in Iraq was an increase of 71.7 km2 per year...high maximum air temperature and wind speed are the main factors that contribute to increasing burned areas
Warming Brazil Drought2020 74(Morales et al., 2020) South American Drought Atlas shows that the frequency of widespread severe droughts and extreme pluvials since the 1960s is unprecedented.
Temporal India Flooding2020 13(Chug et al., 2020) multiple locations across Western Himalayan (WH) rivers...we find that the frequency of extreme flow events during the period 1980-2003 has doubled with a statistically significant increasing trend in annual maximum streamflow. We postulate that this streamflow change is due to the increased precipitation extremes.
Anthropogenic Australia Coastal Inundation2020 17(Hague et al., 2020) a large coastal city as an example, we show that in Sydney, Australia, frequencies of minor coastal inundation have increased from 1.6 to 7.8 days per year between 1914 and present day. We attribute over 80% of the observed coastal inundation events between 1970 and 2015 to the predominantly anthropogenic increases in global mean sea level.
Temporal China Extreme Precipitation2020 4(Jian et al., 2020) extreme precipitation have significantly increased in 1961-2012...the frequency and proportion of extreme precipitation were significantly increased by 2.0-4.7% and 2.3-2.9% per decade, respectively, mainly in south China and Yangtze River Basin.
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation2019 50Top (Donat et al., 2019) use the globally most complete observational datasets that allow analysis of daily-scale precipitation extremes over the recent 60 year period 1951 to 2010...observations indicate increases in both total and extreme precipitation in the humid regions over the past 60 years...this study confirms that precipitation extremes are increasing in most land regions.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2016 46(Ingram, 2016) precipitation has increased across both the wetter and the drier parts of the continents, and will continue to do so as global warming continues.
Temporal Norway Drought2010 166(Wilson et al., 2010) three periods: 1920-2005, 1941-2005 and 1961-2000...a signal towards earlier snowmelt floods was clear, as was the tendency towards more severe summer droughts in southern and eastern Norway.
Warming Canada Lightning2017 204(Veraverbeke et al., 2017) find that lightning ignitions have increased since 1975...lightning ignition explained more than 55% of the interannual variability in burned area, and was correlated with temperature and precipitation
Warming Egypt Drought2020 12(Sahour et al., 2020) water resources in the Middle East, as one of the most water-scarce regions of the world, have undergone extra pressure due to climatic an annual time scale, 62.5% of the detected trends in aridity were found to be upward (up to 96% increase) due to the combined effects of the decrease in precipitation and the increase in potential evapotranspiration.
Warming India Heat Waves2020 16(Singh et al., 2020) the mid-20th century, an increasing trend in the characteristics of heat waves has been observed over India causing an increased rate in human mortality...the study found a Spatio-temporal shift in the occurrence of HW events with a significantly increasing trend in three prominent heat wave prone regions i.e., Northwestern, Central and South-Central India, highest being in West Madhya Pradesh (0.80 events/year)
Temporal United States Fires2020 24(Khorshidi et al., 2020) Southern California very large fires and 'megafires' are more strongly associated with multiple drivers exceeding moderate thresholds concurrently...days with concurrent fire drivers exceeding thresholds have increased more rapidly over the past four decades than individual drivers, leading to a tripling of annual 'megafire critical danger days'.
Temporal Uganda Crops2016 34(Egeru, 2016) percent of the pastoralists noted that the climate had changed evidenced by high but erratic rainfall, occurrence of floods and variation in rainfall onset and cessation among other indicators. This change in climate had led to emergence of 'new' livestock and crop diseases, crop failure and low yields leading to frequent food shortages, water shortages, poor market access, and variation in pasture availability among other effects.
Warming India Crops2016 75(Gupta et al., 2016) are estimated to be about 5.2% lower than they would have been if temperatures had not increased during the study period.
Warming Nigeria Crops2016 3(Ifeanyi-obi et al., 2016) major influence of climate change on cocoyam production include decline in yield of cocoyam, reduction of soil fertility, uncertainty in planting and harvesting date, stunted growth of cocoyam, increase in decay of planted corms/cormels and increase loss during storage in the barns.
Warming Global Crops2018 48(Lizumi et al., 2018), we estimate the impacts of climate change on the global average yields of maize, rice, wheat and soybeans for 1981-2010, relative to the preindustrial climate...climate change has decreased the global mean yields of maize, wheat and soybeans by 4.1, 1.8 and 4.5%, respectively, relative to the counterfactual simulation
Warming Nepal Crops2014 35(Paudel et al., 2014) occurrence of extreme events and increased variability in temperature has increased the vulnerability of crops to biotic and abiotic stresses and altered the timing of agricultural operations; thereby affecting crop production.
Warming Global Crops2013 517(Bebber et al., 2013), we demonstrate an average poleward shift of 2.7+/-0.8 kmyr-1 since 1960, in observations of hundreds of pests and pathogens...the observed positive latitudinal trends in many taxa support the hypothesis of global warming-driven pest movement.
Anthropogenic China Drought2020 11(Chen, 2020) 1970-2017...the intra-seasonal distribution of precipitation, in both frequency and amount, has been getting significantly more uneven...suggesting detectable contributions from anthropogenic climate change...the increased unevenness has led to significant lengthening of the longest dry spells
Anthropogenic Global Heat Waves2020 18Top (Chambers, 2020) have become more frequent and intense due to anthropogenic global warming... from 1980 to 2018... we demonstrated that there is a clear trend in increasing heatwave days globally.
Warming Global Hurricanes2020 53(Li & Chakraborty, 2020) we analyse intensity data for North Atlantic landfalling hurricanes11 over the past 50 years and show that hurricane decay has slowed, and that the slowdown in the decay over time is in direct proportion to a contemporaneous rise in the sea surface temperature.
Warming United States Fires2020 123(Parks and Abatzoglou, 2020) show that area burned at high severity increased across most of the study area, with an overall eightfold increase in western US forests from 1985 to 2017. Furthermore, warmer and drier fire seasons corresponded with higher severity fire, indicating that continued climate change may result in increased fire severity in future decades.
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation2020 20(Contractor et al., 2020) study investigates changes in the number of wet-days (>=1mm) and the entire distribution of daily wet- and all-day records, in addition to trends in annual and seasonal totals from daily records, between 1950 and 2016. The main finding of this study is that precipitation has intensified across a majority of land areas globally throughout the wet-day distribution.
Temporal Australia Extreme Precipitation2020 7(Osburn et al., 2020) precipitation data from eight high quality precipitation gauges from 1958 to 2014 in Victoria (Australia) were used. On average, we found an 89% increase in hourly precipitation events exceeding 18 mm/h in the latter half of the study period as compared to the earlier half. The most extreme precipitation events increased in intensity by more than more moderate extremes.
Warming China Hurricanes2020 1(Ji et al., 2020) the southeastern coastal area of China for the past 60 terms of climate change response, it is clear that the frequency, duration, and intensity of storm surges have increased significantly since the end of the 1980s...with the intensification of climate warming, the intensity has increased rapidly.
Warming Global Heatwaves2020 54(Mukherjee and Mishra, 2020) regions across the globe witnessed rise in compound drought and heatwave frequency (1-3 events/year), duration (2-10 days/year), and severity. This increasing pattern is spatially asymmetric, and greater amplification is observed across the Northern hemisphere due to recent warming.
Warming Indian Ocean Hurricanes2020 4(Vidya et al., 2020) present study examines the role of the Southern Indian Ocean (SIO) warming on the cyclone destruction potential or Power Dissipation Index (PDI) during two contrasting periods of 1980-1998 and 1999-2016. The PDI in the SIO during 1999-2016 is found to have doubled compared to the same during 1980-1998...the increasing trend in PDI during the latter period is primarily due to an increase in the intensity of cyclones and their duration...the increasing PDI is associated with a sea surface temperature warming.
Temporal India Reduced Rainfall2020 5(Sah et al., 2020) study examined the long-term (1951-2015) spatio-temporal trends, variability, and teleconnections of rainfall of 15 districts in the Terai region of Uttar Pradesh, India...our analysis revealed significantly declining trends in monthly rainfall for most of the districts in all the months, except February, April, May, and seasonal and annual rainfall data, only decreasing trends were significant.
Warming South Africa Heat Waves2021 12(van der Walt & Fitchett, 2021) study presents the first comprehensive annual and seasonal, spatial and temporal trend analyses of daily maximum and minimum extreme temperature events recorded from 20 meteorological stations across South Africa, spanning 1960-2016...results show a general annual trend increase in maximum temperature at a rate of 0.02 C year-1...a general increasing trend in heatwave events is recorded at 0.03 events year-1 countrywide.
Anthropogenic Global Intensity2013 204Top (Holland & Bruyere, 2013) conclude that since 1975 there has been a substantial and observable regional and global increase in the proportion of Cat 4-5 hurricanes of 25-30% per degree C of anthropogenic global warming. The increasing proportion of intense hurricanes has been accompanied by a similar decrease in weaker hurricanes.
Anthropogenic Global Intensity2007 218(Emanuel, 2007) the last 25 yr...there has been a 10% increase in potential intensity in the tropical Atlantic, and a 6% increase in the western North Pacific during this time, owing mostly to increasing net radiative fluxes into the ocean and decreasing tropopause temperature.
Warming India Extreme Precipitation2021 4(Zahan et al., 2021) as the seasonal mean decreases, our estimate indicates that the frequency of occurrence of daily extremes (exceeding 99.5 percentile) over [North-East India] is increasing at + 51 +/- 4.99 %/K while the intensity is increasing at +12.5 +/- 3.32 %/K over the past century
Warming California Fires2021 9(Dong et al., 2021) has experienced more wildfires in recent, 1535 California wildfires during 1984-2017 are systematically investigated...most (60%) wildfires occurred on hot/dry burned area by wildfires has significantly increased by 3.6% per year, indicating a doubling of burned area in 2017 relative to 1984, mainly dominated by hot/dry wildfires in summer. Drying and warming in conjunction with strengthening of the high pressure in summer and fall have the potential to support more frequent and larger hot/dry wildfires in California during the past several decades.
Warming Pakistan Reduced Streamflow2021 13(Latif et al., 2021) present study concludes that Upper Indus Basin's vulnerability is growing in terms of significantly increased temperature, reduced precipitation, and eventually decreased river flows during the recent period from 1991 to 2013.
Warming Brazil Drought2021 35(Geirinhas et al., 2021) the period of 1980-2018...our results confirm that the Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais states have recorded pronounced and statistically significant increases in the number of compound summer drought and heatwave episodes.
Warming Brazil Heat Waves2021 35(Geirinhas et al., 2021) the period of 1980-2018...our results confirm that the Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais states have recorded pronounced and statistically significant increases in the number of compound summer drought and heatwave episodes.
Warming Romania Heat Waves2021 8(Micu et al., 2021) results show a significant warming trend...and a significant increase in absolute maximum temperatures, summer days and warm spell duration.
Warming China Intensity2021 3(Xiao et al., 2021) further show that tropical cyclones (TCs) forming in the sea surface near land (6-21N, 130-137E) have been more likely to intensify to super TCs in recent years...the intensification of TC is mainly due to the increase in the intensification rate, which increases with increased sea surface temperature (SST)...western South China, Southeast China, and Japan are facing an increase in landfalling super TCs.
Warming United States Extreme Precipitation2021 8Top (Prein & Mearns, 2021) precipitation has increased in frequency and intensity across the Conterminous U.S. This trend is expected to continue under future climate change.
Warming United States Cyanotoxin2021 15(Smucker et al., 2021) 2009, cell densities posing high human health risks have become frequent...these increases coincided with progressively earlier and longer summer warming of surface waters...increases in cyanobacterial blooms already are occurring as changing climate conditions in some regions increasingly favor their proliferation.
Temporal Australia Heat Waves2021 10(Jyoteeshkumar reddy et al., 2021) also investigated the heatwave and severe heatwave trends...over selected time periods (1911-2019, 1911-1964, and 1965-2019)...the results highlight that the severe heatwave cumulative magnitude and their season duration have been increasing significantly in recent decades over Australia's southern coastal cities (like Melbourne and Adelaide).
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation2021 10(Tan et al., 2021) monsoon regions (EASM, SEAM and NAUM) which are located in the western Pacific and all the five non-monsoon regions (NA, AS, NAS, EU and SAH) over the Northern Hemisphere show increases (5-190 km) in the spatial extent of precipitation extremes in the seasons of DJF, MAM and JJA except SON.
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation2021 6(Chinita et al., 2021) used hourly precipitation at 1/4 deg spatial resolution from the new European Reanalysis-ERA5 (Hersbach et al 2020), to assess changes in the frequency of hourly and daily heavy precipitation events during 1989-2018 relative to 1979-1988...according to ERA5 and in a global average sense, during 1989-2018, hourly events that occurred once per year in 1979-1988 increased in frequency by 71 (53-93, 95% range), while the one day per year heavy event frequency increased by 44 (37-54) %.
Anthropogenic United States Extreme Precipitation2021 4(Huang et al., 2021) precipitation (EP) in the Northeastern United States increased abruptly after 1996, coinciding with warming Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs)...greenhouse gases are the only anthropogenic forcing exerting substantial influence on EP, first detected in 2008.
Warming Sudan Crops2021 1(Musa et al., 2021) all three areas, regression analysis detected upward trends in the growing-season temperature...the yields were negatively correlated with the growing-season temperature, particularly THN in Northern State, TMAX in Gezira State, and TMIN in Kassala State. These results confirm that the recent increase in the growing-season temperature might have reduced the yield to some extent in the breadbasket of Sudan.
Warming United Kingdom Heat Waves2021 1(Beckett & Sanderson, 2021) of land in the United Kingdom (UK) affected by heatwaves between 1960 and 2019 have been analysed using a daily gridded temperature dataset....positive trends in numbers, durations and areas of heatwaves were found as a result of rising summer temperatures.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2021 1(Flanagan & Mahmood, 2021) from 131 U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) stations were used to determine the nature of extreme precipitation from 1950 to 2019...results show that 99th-percentile events and annual station maximum precipitation events are becoming more frequent across the Missouri River basin.
Temporal Madagascar Drought2021 4(Randriamarolaza et al., 2021) study updates knowledge on climate evolution in Madagascar from 1950 to 2018...drought indices highlighted an increased number of drought events after the 1980s.
Warming Iran Drought2021 3(Sadeqi & Kahya, 2021) a long-term meteorological data (1960-2019) of 31 synoptic stations throughout Iran...our results revealed that the climate in Iran, in general, has become warmer and drier in the past 60 years and continuation of the current global warming trend will exacerbate this problem in the future.
Temporal Taiwan Extreme Precipitation2021 12(Henny et al., 2021) this study, Taiwan's extreme rainfall (ER) is analyzed over a 56-yr time period in different seasons and geographic regions...a trend analysis revealed a positive trend in island-mean ER for the winter, spring, and typhoon seasons.
Warming Arabian Sea Hurricanes2021 26(Deshpande et al., 2021) the study period (1982-2019), a significant increasing trend in the intensity, frequency, and duration of cyclonic storms (CS) and very severe CS (VSCS) is observed over the Arabian Sea.
Warming India Lightning2021 11(Chakraborty et al., 2021) increase in surface temperatures has led to enhanced instability and, hence, stronger moisture transport to the upper-troposphere and lower-stratosphere regions, especially along the total, India has faced a 25% increase in lightning frequency (with very high correlation values) in these 17 years (1998-2014).
Anthropogenic United States Crops2021 9(Diffenbaugh et al., 2021) econometric analysis in combination with observed and simulated changes in county-level temperature, we show that global warming has already contributed substantially to rising crop insurance losses in the U.S...county-level temperature trends have contributed $27.0 billion - or 19% - of the national-level crop insurance losses over the 1991-2017 period.
Warming Pakistan Drought2021 24(Ullah et al., 2021) present work sought to investigate the spatiotemporal changes in drought characteristics over Pakistan during Rabi and Kharif cropping seasons...monthly precipitation and temperature data (1983-2019) from 53 meteorological stations...revealed an increase in drought severity, mostly over arid to semi-arid regions for both cropping seasons.
Warming Global Hurricanes2021 26(Guzman & Jiang, 2021), observations exhibit an increasing trend in the average TC rainfall rate of about 1.3% per year...these trends are associated with increases in sea surface temperature and total precipitable water in the TC environment.
Warming China Hurricanes2021 5(Wei et al., 2021) frequency and duration of Tropical Cyclone (TC) induced regional heavy precipitation events (RHPEs) are significantly increasing in southeastern and northeastern China...meanwhile, the exceedance probability of extreme TC-induced RHPEs is increasing in recent decades.
Warming China Drought2021 4(Sun et al., 2021) indicate a significant increasing trend in drought severity in [northern East Asia]...correlation analysis indicates that the intensification of drought in NEA is strongly related to the changes in average temperature and related ECIs
Temporal Global Extratropical Cyclones2016 38(Chang & Yau, 2016) 1959 and 2010, Pacific storm track activity has likely increased by 10 % or more, while Atlantic storm track activity has likely increased by <10 %
Temporal Global Extratropical Cyclones2016 45(Wang X. L. et al., 2016) the four datasets that cover the period 1958-2010 agree well in terms of trend direction and interannual variability in hemispheric counts of deep-cyclones, showing a general increase in both hemispheres over the past half century.
Anthropogenic Australia Fires2021 50(Canadell et al., 2021) area in Australia's forests shows a linear positive annual trend but an exponential increase during autumn and winter...the increase in forest burned area is consistent with increasingly more dangerous fire weather conditions...all associated to varying degrees with anthropogenic climate change.
Temporal Ireland Extreme Precipitation2021 1(Ryan et al., 2021) study provides the first assessment of long-term changes in extreme daily precipitation observed at 30 locations across Ireland...results show increases in precipitation intensity, especially notable in the east and southeast of the island. Our findings also show that the contribution of heavy and extreme precipitation events to annual totals is increasing
Warming China Crops2021 15(Wang et al., 2021), on the basis of a unique historical dataset with more than 5,500 statistical records, we found an increased occurrence of crop pests and diseases (CPD) in every province of China, with the national average rate of CPD occurrence increasing by a factor of four (from 53% to 218%) during 1970-2016. Historical climate change is responsible for more than one-fifth of the observed increment of CPD occurrence...ranging from 2% to 79% in different provinces.
Temporal Global Crops2021 7(He et al., 2021) proposed a novel approach to identify and summarize CDHEs [compound drought and heatwave events] by taking "crop growing season" as accumulated period, and investigated the spatiotemporal changes of CDHEs occurring within wheat growing seasons over global wheat-producing areas during 1981-2020...the frequency of CDHEs increased significantly in 28.2% of wheat-producing areas, and the total duration of CDHEs increased significantly in 33.2% of wheat-producing areas
Anthropogenic Global Drought2022 2(Zhang et al., 2022) this study, we provide evidence that anthropogenic forcings have contributed to the increased compound dry and hot events (CDHEs) over global land areas...the results show observed occurrences of CDHEs have increased over most regions across global land areas during 1956-2010 relative to 1901-1955...we find anthropogenic influences have increased the risk of CDHEs in large regions across the globe except for parts of Eurasia and North America.
Warming Iran Reduced Streamflow2022 1(Mahmoodi et al., 2022) records from eight sites of the Dez River Basin, Iran, were analyzed by a modified Mann-Kendall test to examine possible trends in annual and monthly time series of streamflow...the results showed significant negative trends in the streamflow time series of the warm months (April, May, June, July, August, and September) over 34 year-long records.
Temporal Kazakhstan Drought2022 5(Ren et al., 2022) results indicated that the dry season became drier while the wet season became wetter in Central Asia for 1982-2019
Warming Indonesia Heat Waves2022 2(Li, Yuan and Hang, 2022) the observational and reanalysis data, we find that in most parts of Southeast Asia, heat waves are becoming more frequent, longer-lasting and stronger, and affect more land areas.
Warming Alaska Fires2022 1(Sierra-Hernandez et al., 2022) BC record from Bona-Churchill reveals that high fire activity became more frequent after 1984 in agreement with Alaska fire records...strongly suggesting that temperature became a more dominant factor influencing fire activity in Alaska after the 1980s as suggested by other studies.
Warming North Korea Heat Waves2022 1(Om et al., 2022) aim of the study is to estimate the trend in extreme temperature events in the northern part of Korean Peninsula during 1960-2019...frost days (FD0) and ice days (ID0) showed a clear downward trend, whereas warm days (SU25) and warm nights (TR20) experienced an obvious uptrend, with SU25 exceeding TR20, while very hot days (TX35), extreme hot days (TX37) and very extreme hot days (TX39) showed abrupt increasing trends.
Temporal Global Aridity2022 9Top (Ullah et al., 2022) present study assessed spatiotemporal changes in global aridity over the period 1901-2019, using five aridity indices...except for the AIunep index, the rest of the indices displayed an obvious and consistent increase in aridity over Northern Hemisphere...the increase (decrease) in temperature (soil moisture) has intensified the process of potential evapotranspiration (PET) and aridity across the globe.
Temporal Global Floods2022 2Top (Liu, Shi and Fang, 2022) a global scale, annual flood occurrence showed an increasing trend during the study period (with a Z value of 2.08 in the MK test). The monotonous increasing trend of global flood frequency was mainly caused by the increase in Level II and Level III flood frequencies, while Level I floods show an decreasing trend but not significant (Fig. 1 and Table 4).
Warming Nebraska Crops2022 5(dos Santos et al., 2022) predominant increase in mean maximum and minimum temperatures in Nebraska in the last four decades was observed with a nighttime warming trend. The extreme maximum temperatures and diurnal temperature range indices are environmental factors that negatively impact the rainfed crop production in Nebraska.
Warming Bangladesh Extreme Precipitation2022 1(Azad et al., 2022) results showed a significant decreasing trend in light and moderate precipitation indices, P10, D10, P20, and D20, while an increasing trend in heavy precipitation indices such as P60, D60, P60plus, and D60plus.
Warming Greece Heat Waves2022 3(Founda et al., 2022) significant trends (p < 0.01) in the number of Heat Waves (HWs) events and frequency of HWs days have been found in the area, irrespective of HWs definition. Changes in the timing of HWs - consistent across definitions- have been also found, resulting in the lengthening of HWs season by up to 7 days/decade since the 1960s.
Temporal China Extreme Precipitation2022 1(Zhang and Zhao, 2022) terms of extreme precipitation events, precipitation persistence showed a decreasing trend, but an increasing trend in precipitation intensity and magnitude in most regions of China.
Warming China Crops2022 5(Tao et al., 2022) 1981-2018, climate warming shortened growing period (GP) on average by 4.2 and 4.6 days/decade for winter and spring wheat, respectively.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2022 3(Du et al., 2022) and climate model simulations show that the frequency of extreme precipitation on consecutive days (EPCD) is increasing in most land regions, in particular, in North America, Europe, and the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes...changes are larger in simulations with a stronger warming signal
Warming United Kingdom Storm Surge2022 9(Calafat et al., 2022) rise has been a considerable driver of trends in sea-level extremes since at least 1960...trends in surge extremes and sea-level rise both made comparable contributions to the overall change in extreme sea levels in Europe since 1960.
Warming United States Hurricanes2019 Top (Grinsted et al., 2019) data reveal an emergent positive trend in damage, which we attribute to a detectable change in extreme storms due to global warming
Anthropogenic Mongolia Reduced Streamflow2019 (Zorigt et al., 2019) and maximum runoff, precipitation, and air temperature data from 12 gauging stations collected between 1978 and 2015 were analyzed to characterize the hydrological regime response to climate change...river runoff in the Mongolian part of the Selenge basin has decreased from the first interval (1978-1995) of our study period compared with the consecutive interval from 1996 to 2015
Anthropogenic China Heat Waves2020 (Li et al., 2020) show that summer mean WBGT has increased almost everywhere across China since 1961 due to human-induced climate change. Consequently, hot summers as measured by summer mean WBGT are becoming more frequent and more conducive to heat stress...these hot WBGT summers have become more than 140 times as likely in Eastern China in the present decade 2010s compared to a 1961-1990 baseline period.
Temporal China Drought2020 (Li et al., 2020) is one of the major natural disasters in northern the Inner Mongolian Plateau from 1962 to 2017...the degree of drought in the study area has increased.
Temporal Israel Extreme Precipitation2020 (Ajjur and Riffi, 2020) on the daily precipitation observations of eight meteorological stations over Gaza Strip, from 1974 to 2016, the trends of 11 extreme precipitation indices (EPIs) were estimated...the results show that, on average, most of the indices exhibited increasing trends during 1974-2016.
Warming United States Reduced Streamflow2020 (Martin et al., 2020) find that temperature has increasingly influenced the severity of drought events by decreasing runoff efficiency in the [Upper Missouri River Basin] since the late 20th century (1980s) onward. The occurrence of extreme heat, higher evapotranspiration, and associated low-flow conditions across the basin has increased substantially over the 20th and 21st centuries.
Warming United States Crops2020 (Eck et al., 2020) the southeastern United States...detrended county-level yield data (1981-2018) were analyzed...surface crops in the region suffer considerable declines as a result of higher than normal maximum temperatures during the growing season...although drought conditions result in negative departures from expected yield, the findings of this study highlight that excess moisture in the latter part of the growing season (Sep-Oct) can be equally damaging.
Warming Oman Drought2020 (Kenawy et al., 2020) and temporal variability of drought in Oman was assessed for the period 1979-2014...results suggest a statistically significant increase in the frequency and severity of drought during the past four decades...the significant temperature rise in recent decades, combined with a significant decline of rainfall and relative humidity, can explain the prolonged drought episode lasting from 1998 to 2014.
Warming Hungary Crops2017 (Pinke and Lovei, 2017) analysis of 30-year segments indicated a monotonously increasing negative impact of temperature on crop yields. A 1 C temperature increase reduced the yield of the four main cereals by 9.6%-14.8% in 1981-2010.
Anthropogenic Global Extreme Precipitation2020 Top (Dong et al., 2020) we conduct a formal detection and attribution analysis on changes in four percentile-based precipitation extreme indices...we show that most land areas with observations experienced increases in these extreme indices with global warming during the historical period optimal fingerprinting analysis reveals detectable anthropogenic signals in the observations of these indices averaged over the globe and over most continents.
Warming Bermuda Intensity2021 (Hallam et al., 2021) results show a more easterly genesis over time and significant increasing trends in TC intensity (maximum wind speed (Vmax)) with a decadal Vmax median value increase of 30 kts from 33 to 63 kts (r = 0.94, p = 0.02), together with significant increasing August, September, October sea surface temperature (SST) of 1.1 C
Anthropogenic Europe Crops2021 (Bras et al., 2021), we combine observational agricultural data (FAOSTAT) with an extreme weather disaster database (EM-DAT) between 1961 and 2018 to evaluate European crop production responses to EWD...the severity of heatwave and drought impacts on crop production roughly tripled over the last 50 years, from -2.2% (1964-1990) to -7.3% (1991-2015)
Warming China Heat Waves2021 (Wang and Yan, 2021) study revealed an approximate doubling in both the frequency and the magnitude of regional heat wave events observed over 1960-2018 in China...the annual frequency of regional heat wave events has increased with a linear trend of 2.73 events decade -1.
Anthropogenic Global Heat Waves2021 (Robinson et al., 2021) are now entering an era with heat extremes that simply would not have occurred without climate change...the land area affected by 3-sigma heat has almost doubled and 4-sigma heat has now newly emerged in the observations.
Anthropogenic California & Oregon Fires2022 (Hawkins et al., 2022) show that while present-day anthropogenic climate change has slightly decreased the prevalence of strong offshore downslope winds, it has increased the likelihood of extreme fire weather indices by 40% in areas where recent autumn wind-driven fires have occurred in northern California and Oregon. These findings illustrate that anthropogenic climate change is exacerbating autumn fire weather extremes that contribute to high-impact catastrophic fires in populated regions of the western US.
Warming Nepal Floods2022 (Chapagain, Bharati and Borgemeister, 2022) found that climatic disaster frequency and mortality increased in Nepal from 1992 to 2021...landslides and floods were the two deadliest disaster types, accounting for 37% and 32% of total disaster mortality, respectively.
Warming Dominican Republic Drought2022 (Zermeno-Diaz, 2022) the last decades, the variability of the Caribbean precipitation has been characterized by dry trends over land...the results suggest that the dry trends might have been intensified by the land-sea contrast trend that has characterized the effects of global warming
Anthropogenic Japan Extreme Precipitation2022 (Murakmai et al., 2022) frequency of large-scale anomalous precipitation events associated with heavy precipitation has been increasing in Japan...the results show that the observed increases in anomalous heavy precipitation events in Western Japan during 1977-2015 were not made only by internal variability but the increases in anthropogenic forcing played an important role.
Warming Europe Drought2022 (Hansel et al., 2022) variations in drought and five record drought summer half years are studied based on 63 stations across Europe with high-quality precipitation and temperature time series spanning the period 1901-2018...The aggregated drought evaluation index (ADE) shows increasing summer drought conditions over most of Europe, except for some stations in northern Europe.
Warming Florida Heat Waves2022 (McAllister, Stephens, and Milrad, 2022) Florida, summer heat waves have increased in frequency and duration...for eight Florida cities, this study constructs summer climatologies and trend analyses (1950-2020) of two heat stress metrics: heat index (HI) and wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT)...danger (103-124F; 39.4-51.1C) HI and high (>88F; 31.1C) WBGT summer days exhibit significant frequency increases across the state.
Warming Czech Republic Heat Waves2021 (Zahradnicek et al., 2021) general, statistically significant increasing linear trends were recognized in series of absolute TMAX, absolute TMIN, numbers of summer days, tropical days, days with tropical nights, heat-wave, and warm-anomaly days.
Temporal Brazil Extreme Precipitation2022 (Martini, 2022) series analysis of several rain gauges shows that the mid-latitudes of Brazil experienced an increase in both annual and extreme rainfall over the last 60-years (1961-2020). The annual time series shows a significant upward trend, while changes in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall indicate a shortening of the recurrence interval for extreme precipitation events.
Temporal Atlantic Ocean Intensity2022 (Wu and Korty, 2022) of two high-resolution reanalysis products show that high values of hurricane potential intensity (PI) are becoming more frequent and covering a larger area of the Atlantic, which is consistent with the lengthening of the tropical cyclone season previously reported.
Warming Malaysia Extreme Precipitation2022 (Yik Ng et al., 2022) study presents a spatial-temporal analysis on changes of precipitation extremes in Peninsular Malaysia by utilizing long-term daily rainfall records at 64 observed stations during 1989-2018...Statistically significant increasing trends are observed for four of these extreme indices in the annual assessment.
Temporal Central Brazil Drought2022 (Tomasella et al., 2022) analyzed the spatio-temporal trends in SPI and SPEI time-series, which revealed statistically significant trends toward drier conditions across central Brazil for all time scales
Temporal Europe Aridity2022 (Bestakova et al., 2022) significant dry region expansion is evident in all data sets since the late 1980s. The extent of the dry regions has increased in Western, Central, and Eastern Europe, especially at low and medium altitudes.
Anthropogenic Global Drought2022 (Hao et al., 2022) from observations shows an overall increase in compound droughts and hot events or extremes in the past few decades at regional and global scales, which mainly results from an increase in hot extremes and is likely attributable to anthropogenic influences.
Temporal US Atlantic Coast Intensity2022 (Balaguru et al., 2022) the 40-year period of 1979-2018, the mean 24-hr hurricane intensification rate increased by -1.2 kt 6-hr-1 near the US Atlantic coast.
Warming Global Intensity2022 (Wang et al., 2022) we show that weak TCs (that is, tropical storms to category-1 TCs based on the Saffir-Simpson scale) have intensified in all ocean basins during the period 1991-2020, based on huge amounts of highly accurate ocean current data derived from surface drifters.
Warming Turkey Extreme Precipitation2022 (Albayrak et al., 2022) Overall, from 5-min to 2-hr durations, magnitudes of trends in extreme rainfall constantly increase in all rainfall regimes, which may be attributed to the intensified contribution of convective rainfall as a response to warming
Warming United States Heat Waves2022 (Shenoy et al., 2022) yearly trends of the risk of a 100-y high-temperature event show an average 2.1-fold increase over the last 41 y of data across all months, with a 2.6-fold increase for the months of July through October.

Select all results