|Quality||Category||Year||Cite As||DOI||Key Quote|
|9||Radiative GHE Observed||2001||(Harries et al., 2001)||https://doi.org/10.1038/35066553||Here we analyse the difference between the spectra of the outgoing longwave radiation of the Earth as measured by orbiting spacecraft in 1970 and 1997. We find differences in the spectra that point to long-term changes in atmospheric CH4, CO2 and O3 as well as CFC-11 and CFC-12. Our results provide direct experimental evidence for a significant increase in the Earth's greenhouse effect that is consistent with concerns over radiative forcing of climate.|
|10||Radiative GHE Observed||2015||(Feldman et al., 2015)||https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14240||Here we present observationally based evidence of clear-sky CO2 surface radiative forcing that is directly attributable to the increase, between 2000 and 2010, of 22 parts per million atmospheric CO2|
|10||Radiative GHE Observed||2004||(Philipona et al., 2004)||https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL018765||The resulting temperature corrected cloud-free longwave downward radiation (LDRcf,tc) shown in Figure 3b) has, due to the high correlation, now much less variability and a quite uniform increase between 2.1 and 2.9 Wm−2 over all stations. The average LDRcf,tc increase is +2.4 (0.9) Wm−2 and most of the stations show a trend at the 95% significance level.|
The resulting uniform increase of longwave downward radiation manifests radiative forcing that is induced by increased greenhouse gas concentrations and water vapor feedback, and proves the -theory- of greenhouse warming with direct observations.
|8||Radiative GHE Observed||2009||(Wang and Liang, 2009)||https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD011800||We found that daily Ld increased at an average rate of 2.2 W m^2 per decade from 1973 to 2008. The increase in Ld is mainly due to the increase in air temperature, water vapor and CO2 concentration.|
|8||Radiative GHE Observed||2008||(Wild, Grieser and Schär, 2008)||https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034842||Here we present a first-order trend estimate for the 15-year period 1986-2000, which suggests that surface net radiation over land has rapidly increased by about 2 Wm^2 per decade, after several decades with no evidence for an increase. This recent increase is caused by increases in both downward solar radiation (due to a more transparent atmosphere) and downward thermal radiation (due to enhanced concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases)|
|7||Radiative GHE Observed||2007||(Prata, 2007)||https://doi.org/10.1080/01431160802036508||Here long-term (more than 25 years) mean monthly profiles obtained from globally distributed land-based radiosonde stations are subjected to detailed radiative transfer computations and Fourier time series analysis. The results indicate that over the period 1964-1990, there has been a global increase in the clear-sky longwave flux at the surface. The global trend is approximately +1.7 W m^2 per decade|