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Drought and Desertification (85 Papers)

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Shortlist Attribution Region SubCategory Year # Citations Cite As DOI Key Quote
Warming Africa (East) Drought2011 368(Williams and Funk, 2011) the past 60 years, the Indian Ocean warmed two to three times faster than the central tropical Pacific...In recent decades (1980-2009), this response has suppressed convection over tropical eastern Africa, decreasing precipitation during the 'long-rains' season of March-June.
Temporal Peru Reduced Streamflow2012 199(Baraer et al., 2012) results suggest that seven of the nine study watersheds have probably crossed a critical transition point, and now exhibit decreasing dry-season discharge.
Temporal India Desertification2018 26(Ramarao et al., 2018) the period 1951-2005...An assessment of P/PET estimated using the ensemble mean precipitation shows an increase in aridity over several semiarid regions of India...Our results further reveal a 10% expansion in the area of the semiarid regions during recent decades relative to previous decades
Anthropogenic Africa (South) Drought2008 320(Funk et al., 2008), late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies
Temporal Africa Drought2009 24(Kniveton et al., 2009) 1978 to 2002, the start of the wet season arrived later in the year for the majority of the region, as time progressed
Temporal Africa (West) Drought2000 253(Nicholson et al., 2000) West Africa, there has been a pattern of continued aridity since the late 1960s that is most persistent in the more western regions...Rainfall during the last 30 yr (1968-97) has been on average some 15% to 40% lower than during the period 1931-60
Warming Europe Drought2010 319(Stahl et al., 2010) flows have decreased in most regions where the lowest mean monthly flow occurs in summer...The broad, continental-scale patterns of change are mostly congruent with the hydrological responses expected from future climatic changes
Temporal United States Drought2007 128Top (Groisman and Knight, 2007) the past four decades, the mean duration of prolonged dry episodes (1 month or longer in the eastern United States and 2 months or longer in the southwestern United States) has significantly increased.
Warming Global Drought2011 1781(Dai, 2011) article reviews recent literature on drought of the last millennium, followed by an update on global aridity changes from 1950 to 2008...recent warming has increased atmospheric moisture demand and likely altered atmospheric circulation patterns, both contributing to the drying
Warming Global Reduced Streamflow2009 680(Dai et al., 2009) of the top 200 rivers (including the Congo, Mississippi, Yenisey, Paraná, Ganges, Columbia, Uruguay, and Niger) show statistically significant trends during 1948-2004, with the rivers having downward trends (45) outnumbering those with upward trends (19)... Comparisons with the CLM3 simulation suggest that direct human influence on annual streamflow is likely small compared with climatic forcing during 1948-2004 for most of the world's major rivers.
Temporal Chile Reduced Streamflow2013 26(Vicuña et al., 2013) performed a detailed trend analysis of critical hydroclimatic variables based on observed daily flow, precipitation and temperature within the basin...significant reductions in minimum flow during spring/summer and a disproportionate concentration of high-flow events occurring in the last 10 years were also identified
Temporal China Reduced Streamflow2011 58(Fischer et al., 2011) tests are applied to daily temperature and precipitation data from 1961 to 2007 of 192 weather stations...The magnitude of indices describing dryness has increased in the Zhujiang River Basin, and dry periods have become longer while wet periods have shortened in time.
Warming Czech Republic Drought2009 67(Brázdil et al., 2009) analyze droughts in the Czech Republic from 1881-2006 based on the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI)...This study clearly confirms the statistically significant tendency to more intensive dry episodes in the region, driven by temperature increase and precipitation decrease.
Warming Australia Drought2019 2(Lin et al., 2019) in southeastern Australia (SEA) decreased substantially in the austral autumn (March-April-May) of the 1990s and 2000s...this study highlights the role of sea surface temperature (SST) warming in the subtropical South Pacific (SSP) in the autumn rainfall reduction in SEA since the early 1990s.
Temporal Global Drought2014 116(Damberg and AghaKouchak, 2014) paper analyzes changes in areas under droughts over the past three decades...based on satellite gauge-adjusted precipitation observations...we show that several regions, such as the southwestern United States, Texas, parts of the Amazon, the Horn of Africa, northern India, and parts of the Mediterranean region, exhibit a significant drying trend.
Warming Global Desertification2013 533(Feng and Fu, 2013) analyzing observations for 1948-2008...we show that global drylands have expanded in the last sixty years
Temporal Kenya Desertification2018 31(Gichenje and Godinho, 2018) Kenya...using trends in GIMMS NDVI and land cover datasets over the 24-year period from 1992 to 2015...the country has experienced persistent negative trends (browning) over 21.6% of the country, and persistent positive trends (greening) in 8.9% of the country.
Temporal California Desertification2011 25(Lam et al., 2011) a 24-year period (1982, 1988, 1994, 2000, and 2006)...the advancement rate of sand within the Kelso Dunes experienced an encroachment rate of approximately 5.9 m3/m/yr, with advancement accelerating towards the latter half
Warming Mongolia Desertification2013 123(Liu et al., 2013) we use a recently developed 21-year (1988-2008) record of satellite based vegetation optical depth (VOD, a proxy for vegetation water content and aboveground biomass), to show that nearly all steppe grasslands in Mongolia experienced significant decreases in VOD. Approximately 60% of the VOD declines can be directly explained by variations in rainfall and surface temperature.
Temporal Africa Drought2012 41(Marshall et al., 2012) this paper, we examine the trends in Ea, precipitation (P), daily maximum temperature (Tmax), and daily minimum temperature (Tmin) on a seasonal basis using a 31 year time series of variable infiltration capacity (VIC) land surface model (LSM) Ea...the historical analysis reveals substantial drying over much of the Sahel and East Africa during the primary growing season
Temporal Africa Drought2014 349Top (Masih et al., 2014) study is based on the review and analysis of droughts occurred during 1900-2013 [in Africa]...Most of the studies based on instrumental records indicate that droughts have become more frequent, intense and widespread during the last 50 years.
Temporal Global Desertification2014 98Top (Spinoni et al., 2014) couple the information obtained from the Koppen-Geiger (KG) climate classification and the FAO aridity index (AI), providing an overview of the most evident global changes in climate regimes from 1951-1980 to 1981-2010...Both KG and AI show that the arid areas globally increased between 1951-1980 and 1981-2010...North-Eastern Brazil, Southern Argentina, the Sahel, Zambia and Zimbabwe, the Mediterranean area, North-Eastern China and Sub-Himalayan India have been identified as areas with a significant increase of drylands extent.
Anthropogenic Global Desertification2015 31(Chan and Wu, 2015) 5.7% of the global total land area has shifted toward warmer and drier climate types from 1950-2010 and significant changes include expansion of arid and high-latitude continental climate zones.
Temporal Global Desertification2013 331(Chen and Chen, 2013) is concluded that the most significant change over 1901-2010 is a distinct areal increase of the dry climate...since the 1980s.
Temporal Global Drought2017 142(Dai and Zhao 2017) precipitation and streamflow data and the self-calibrated PDSI_pm all show consistent drying during 1950-2012 over most Africa, East and South Asia, southern Europe, eastern Australia, and many parts of the Americas.
Temporal Global Drought2018 208Top (Pan et al., 2018) vegetation trends during the period 1982-2013...A >60% increase in browning area was found during the study period, and the results consistently indicate that the expansion of browning trends has accelerated since 1994.
Temporal Iberian Peninsula Drought2017 39(Pascoa et al., 2017) long-term evolution of drought in the Iberian Peninsula is analyzed...for the period of 1901-2012...SPEI identified dryer conditions and an increase in the area affected by droughts.
Temporal Asia Drought2015 21(Son and Bae, 2015) the period of 1963-2006...annual precipitation and runoff in the SAC regions appeared to decrease about 12.1% and 27.3%, respectively...Frequency and duration of droughts in the SAC regions were observed to increase about 9.2 and 1.5 months, respectively, and drought severity index intensified to about -0.15.
Temporal Europe (South) Drought2015 120(Spinoni et al., 2015) linear trend analysis shows that drought variables increased in the period 1950-2012 in South-Western Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean and Carpathian regions,
Warming Global Drought2019 105(Spinoni et al., 2019) constructed a database of meteorological drought events from 1951 to 2016...Over North America, central Europe, central Asia, and Australia, the recent progressive temperature increase outbalanced the increase in precipitation causing more frequent and severe droughts.
Warming Iberian Peninsula Drought2014 408(Vicente-Serrano et al., 2014) use high quality climate data from ground meteorological stations in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and robust drought indices to confirm that drought severity has increased in the past five decades, as a consequence of greater atmospheric evaporative demand resulting from temperature rise.
Temporal China Desertification2019 8(Yin et al. 2019) delineated the AHCR of China using information about the balance of the atmospheric water supply and demand collected from 581 meteorological stations over the past 50 years...results indicate that the semi-arid region expanded significantly over the last five decades, mainly in northwest China, northern China, and the Tibetan Plateau and, by the 2000s, had increased by 33.53% relative to its extent in the 1960s.
Warming Nigeria Desertification2017 42(Obioha, 2017) the recent times, due to the increasing rate of global warming, the northeast region of Nigeria has been experiencing continuous climatic change characterized by drastic reduction in rainfall, increase in the rate of dryness and heat, which makes it a fast growing arid environment, with depletion in the amount of water, flora and fauna resources on the land.
Anthropogenic Global Drought1998 308(Dai et al., 1998) the late 1970s, however, there have been some increases in the combined percentage areas in severe drought and severe moisture surplus, resulting from increases in either the drought area (e.g., over the Sahel, eastern Asia and southern Africa) or both the drought and wet areas (e.g., over the U.S. and Europe)...These changes are qualitatively consistent with those expected from increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Anthropogenic Global Drought2004 1544(Dai et al., 2004) global very dry areas, defined as PDSI < −3.0, have more than doubled since the 1970s, with a large jump in the early 1980s due to an ENSO-induced precipitation decrease and a subsequent expansion primarily due to surface warming...these results provide observational evidence for the increasing risk of droughts as anthropogenic global warming progresses and produces both increased temperatures and increased drying.
Anthropogenic Australia Drought2004 240(Nicholls, 2004) over nearly all of Australia during the cooler half of the year (May-October) was well below average in 2002...drought conditions (precipitation minus evaporation) were worse than in previous recent periods with similarly low rainfall (1982, 1994). Mean minimum temperatures were also much higher during the 2002 drought than in the 1982 and 1994 droughts...The possibility that the enhanced greenhouse effect is increasing the severity of Australian droughts...needs to be considered.
Temporal China Drought2009 331(Zhou et al., 2009) the recent decades, the EASM [East Asian summer monsoon] has been weakening from the end of the 1970s which results in a "southern China flood and northern China drought" rainfall pattern...the pronounced weakening tendency of the EASM in recent decades is unprecedented.
Temporal Sierra Leone Drought2019 8(Wadsworth et al., 2019) Leone on the west coast of Africa has a monsoon-type climate...changes in rainfall over the last four decades are examined...there is evidence for a significant reduction in annual rainfall in the northwest.
Temporal Horn of Africa Drought2019 47(Haile et al., 2019) results showed that despite regional differences, an overall increasing tendency of drought was observed across the [Greater Horn of Africa] over the past 52 yr, with trends of change of -0.0017 yr-1, -0.0036 yr-1, -0.0031 yr-1, and -0.0023 yr-1 for SPEI-01, SPEI-03, SPEI-06, and SPEI-12, respectively.
Temporal Nigeria Drought2018 81(Shiru et al., 2018) gridded rainfall and temperature data for the period 1961-2010 [for Nigeria] with spatial resolutions of 0.5deg were used...The occurrences of droughts, particularly moderate droughts with smaller areal extents, were found to increase for all of the seasons
Warming Nigeria Drought2019 70(Shiru et al., 2019) for the period 1901-2010...a general decrease in the return periods of droughts indicates more frequent droughts during all cropping seasons of Nigeria. Therefore, it can be concluded that the rising temperature due to global warming would increase drought severity and frequency in all the cropping seasons of Nigeria.
Temporal Bangladesh Drought2019 29(Kamruzzaman et al., 2019) Bangladesh...monthly precipitation data for 36 years (1980-2015) obtained from 27 metrological stations, were used in this study...The frequency of droughts in all categories significantly increased during the last quinquennial period (2011 to 2015).
Temporal Caribbean Drought2017 54(Herrera and Ault, 2017) change is expected to increase the severity and frequency of drought in the Caribbean...this work introduces a first of its kind high-resolution drought dataset for the Caribbean region from 1950 to 2016...linear trends in the scPDSI show a significant drying in the study area, averaging an scPDSI change of -0.09 decade-1 (p < 0.05).
Warming Global Drought2019 25Top (Peng et al., 2019) the late 1940s, drylands have increased at a rate of 512,180 km2/decade. The main feature is the sharp jump in drylands expansion in the 1980s, with the area of drylands increasing 3.1% (1.90 x 106km2) between 1980 and 2008 compared to 1948-1979...rapid warming since the 1980s has become an increasing important cause of the recent global drying trend.
Anthropogenic China Drought2020 18Top (Li et al., 2020) results show that summer hot drought events over northeastern China increased from 1961 to 2005...increased greenhouse gases emission forcing (GHG), and anthropogenic forcing (ANT) can largely reproduce the spatial and temporal features of the trends of summer hot drought events over northeastern China.
Warming Baja California Drought2020 5(Guerrero and Kretzschmar, 2020) detected an abrupt downward change in annual precipitation in 1998, and a continuous period of reduction in precipitation rate from 1999 to 2016 (at least 17 years)...and an increase in dry seasonal/annual periods after 1998...also, we detected an upward change in maximum temperature...and an increase in dry seasonal/annual periods after 1998...the decrease of precipitation and increase in temperature have had negative impacts on groundwater availability that have affected agriculture and population.
Temporal China Drought2020 11(Han et al., 2020) China from 1950 to 2009...the annual and seasonal drought intensities have increased slightly in the past 60 years, while the disturbed area has broadened significantly, especially in eastern China which has become much drier than before.
Temporal Iran Desertification2020 40(Pour et al., 2020) Iran during 1951-2016...the results revealed an increase in annual and seasonal aridity in Iran, which caused expansion of arid land...might have severe consequences on agricultural production and food security of the country.
Temporal Brazil Drought2020 40(Costa et al., 2020) the northeast region of Brazil for the period of most weather stations where there is a significant increase in consecutive dry days, there is also a trend of significant increase in consecutive wet days, thereby intensifying the seasonality, with the dry seasons becoming drier and the rainy seasons wetter.
Warming Global Drought2020 7(Zhang et al., 2020) 1980-2010, due to significant global warming (0.30 C decade -1) the global mean occurrence frequency of [short-term concurrent hot and dry extreme events] has a slightly increasing trend (0.34% decade -1)
Warming Europe Drought2019 56(Manning et al., 2019)[In Europe] during the summer months of June, July and August...over the historical period 1950-2013...we find an increased probability of dry and hot events throughout Europe where rising temperatures are found to be the main driver of this change...the results point to a predominant thermodynamic response of dry and hot events to global warming and reaffirm previous research that soil moisture drought events are setting in faster and becoming more severe.
Anthropogenic China Drought2017 83Top (Chen and Sun, 2017) occurrences across China increased consistently during 1951-2014, especially during the recent twenty years...external natural forcings were mainly responsible for the variability of droughts and anthropogenic influences for their increasing trends, suggesting that anthropogenic warming has increased hot drought occurrences, associated risks and impacts across China.
Temporal Spain Drought2014 14(Andrade & Belo-Pereira, 2014) western and central regions of [Iberian Peninsula] increase in the drought frequency since the 1980s is found during the months of winter and spring. These outcomes are consistent with the downward precipitation trends detected for these seasons in several studies.
Warming China Groundwater2007 502(Cheng & Wu, 2007) studies have reported permafrost degradation under climate warming in the 20th century in the Northern Hemisphere...long-term temperature measurements indicate that the lower altitudinal limit of permafrost has moved up by 25 m in the north during the last 30 years...permafrost degradation is one of the main causes responsible for a dropping groundwater table at the source areas of the Yangtze River and Yellow River, which in turn results in lowering lake water levels, drying swamps and shrinking grasslands.
Anthropogenic United States Reduced Streamflow2020 56(Overpeck & Udall, 2020) the American Southwest, where declining flows in the region's two most important rivers, the Colorado (Fig. 1) and Rio Grande, have been attributed in part to increasing temperatures caused by human activities...warming is also causing flow declines in the northern Rocky Mountains and in the largest river basin in the United States, the Missouri
Warming Montenegro Drought2020 5(Buric & Doderovic, 2020) the period 1951-2018...Podgorica's climate has become more arid and extreme, as the number of days with precipitation >= 1 mm (R1) has significantly decreased.
Anthropogenic Chile Drought2015 189(Boisier et al., 2015) precipitation decline, of consistent direction but of larger amplitude than obtained in simulations with historical climate forcing, has been observed in central Chile since the late 1970s...unlikely to be driven exclusively by natural phenomena but rather consistent with the simulated regional effect of anthropogenic climate change.
Temporal Iran Drought2014 107(Golian et al., 2014) 1980 to 2013...the Mann-Kendall trend test shows that the northern, northwestern, and central parts of Iran have experienced significant drying trends at a 95 % confidence level.
Anthropogenic Syria Drought2012 253(Hoerling et al., 2012) change in wintertime Mediterranean precipitation toward drier conditions has likely occurred over 1902-2010 whose magnitude cannot be reconciled with internal variability alone. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing are key attributable factors for this increased drying.
Anthropogenic Australia Drought2014 106(Delworth & Zeng, 2014) in austral autumn and winter has declined over parts of southern and especially southwestern Australia in the past few our simulations, many aspects of the observed regional rainfall decline over southern and southwest Australia are reproduced in response to anthropogenic changes in levels of greenhouse gases and ozone in the atmosphere
Warming United States Reduced Streamflow2009 193(Luce & Holden, 2009) changing climate and water cycle of the Western U.S. are impacting water resources...the driest 25% of years are getting drier across the majority of the Pacific Northwest. The change is substantial, with most streams showing decreases exceeding 29% and some showing decreases approaching 50% between 1948 and 2006.
Warming Brazil Drought2020 74(Morales et al., 2020) South American Drought Atlas shows that the frequency of widespread severe droughts and extreme pluvials since the 1960s is unprecedented.
Temporal Norway Drought2010 166(Wilson et al., 2010) three periods: 1920-2005, 1941-2005 and 1961-2000...a signal towards earlier snowmelt floods was clear, as was the tendency towards more severe summer droughts in southern and eastern Norway.
Warming Egypt Drought2020 12(Sahour et al., 2020) water resources in the Middle East, as one of the most water-scarce regions of the world, have undergone extra pressure due to climatic an annual time scale, 62.5% of the detected trends in aridity were found to be upward (up to 96% increase) due to the combined effects of the decrease in precipitation and the increase in potential evapotranspiration.
Anthropogenic China Drought2020 11(Chen, 2020) 1970-2017...the intra-seasonal distribution of precipitation, in both frequency and amount, has been getting significantly more uneven...suggesting detectable contributions from anthropogenic climate change...the increased unevenness has led to significant lengthening of the longest dry spells
Temporal India Reduced Rainfall2020 5(Sah et al., 2020) study examined the long-term (1951-2015) spatio-temporal trends, variability, and teleconnections of rainfall of 15 districts in the Terai region of Uttar Pradesh, India...our analysis revealed significantly declining trends in monthly rainfall for most of the districts in all the months, except February, April, May, and seasonal and annual rainfall data, only decreasing trends were significant.
Warming Pakistan Reduced Streamflow2021 13(Latif et al., 2021) present study concludes that Upper Indus Basin's vulnerability is growing in terms of significantly increased temperature, reduced precipitation, and eventually decreased river flows during the recent period from 1991 to 2013.
Warming Brazil Drought2021 35(Geirinhas et al., 2021) the period of 1980-2018...our results confirm that the Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais states have recorded pronounced and statistically significant increases in the number of compound summer drought and heatwave episodes.
Temporal Madagascar Drought2021 4(Randriamarolaza et al., 2021) study updates knowledge on climate evolution in Madagascar from 1950 to 2018...drought indices highlighted an increased number of drought events after the 1980s.
Warming Iran Drought2021 3(Sadeqi & Kahya, 2021) a long-term meteorological data (1960-2019) of 31 synoptic stations throughout Iran...our results revealed that the climate in Iran, in general, has become warmer and drier in the past 60 years and continuation of the current global warming trend will exacerbate this problem in the future.
Warming Pakistan Drought2021 24(Ullah et al., 2021) present work sought to investigate the spatiotemporal changes in drought characteristics over Pakistan during Rabi and Kharif cropping seasons...monthly precipitation and temperature data (1983-2019) from 53 meteorological stations...revealed an increase in drought severity, mostly over arid to semi-arid regions for both cropping seasons.
Warming China Drought2021 4(Sun et al., 2021) indicate a significant increasing trend in drought severity in [northern East Asia]...correlation analysis indicates that the intensification of drought in NEA is strongly related to the changes in average temperature and related ECIs
Anthropogenic Global Drought2022 2(Zhang et al., 2022) this study, we provide evidence that anthropogenic forcings have contributed to the increased compound dry and hot events (CDHEs) over global land areas...the results show observed occurrences of CDHEs have increased over most regions across global land areas during 1956-2010 relative to 1901-1955...we find anthropogenic influences have increased the risk of CDHEs in large regions across the globe except for parts of Eurasia and North America.
Warming Iran Reduced Streamflow2022 1(Mahmoodi et al., 2022) records from eight sites of the Dez River Basin, Iran, were analyzed by a modified Mann-Kendall test to examine possible trends in annual and monthly time series of streamflow...the results showed significant negative trends in the streamflow time series of the warm months (April, May, June, July, August, and September) over 34 year-long records.
Temporal Kazakhstan Drought2022 5(Ren et al., 2022) results indicated that the dry season became drier while the wet season became wetter in Central Asia for 1982-2019
Temporal Global Aridity2022 9Top (Ullah et al., 2022) present study assessed spatiotemporal changes in global aridity over the period 1901-2019, using five aridity indices...except for the AIunep index, the rest of the indices displayed an obvious and consistent increase in aridity over Northern Hemisphere...the increase (decrease) in temperature (soil moisture) has intensified the process of potential evapotranspiration (PET) and aridity across the globe.
Anthropogenic Mongolia Reduced Streamflow2019 (Zorigt et al., 2019) and maximum runoff, precipitation, and air temperature data from 12 gauging stations collected between 1978 and 2015 were analyzed to characterize the hydrological regime response to climate change...river runoff in the Mongolian part of the Selenge basin has decreased from the first interval (1978-1995) of our study period compared with the consecutive interval from 1996 to 2015
Temporal China Drought2020 (Li et al., 2020) is one of the major natural disasters in northern the Inner Mongolian Plateau from 1962 to 2017...the degree of drought in the study area has increased.
Warming United States Reduced Streamflow2020 (Martin et al., 2020) find that temperature has increasingly influenced the severity of drought events by decreasing runoff efficiency in the [Upper Missouri River Basin] since the late 20th century (1980s) onward. The occurrence of extreme heat, higher evapotranspiration, and associated low-flow conditions across the basin has increased substantially over the 20th and 21st centuries.
Warming Oman Drought2020 (Kenawy et al., 2020) and temporal variability of drought in Oman was assessed for the period 1979-2014...results suggest a statistically significant increase in the frequency and severity of drought during the past four decades...the significant temperature rise in recent decades, combined with a significant decline of rainfall and relative humidity, can explain the prolonged drought episode lasting from 1998 to 2014.
Warming Dominican Republic Drought2022 (Zermeno-Diaz, 2022) the last decades, the variability of the Caribbean precipitation has been characterized by dry trends over land...the results suggest that the dry trends might have been intensified by the land-sea contrast trend that has characterized the effects of global warming
Warming Europe Drought2022 (Hansel et al., 2022) variations in drought and five record drought summer half years are studied based on 63 stations across Europe with high-quality precipitation and temperature time series spanning the period 1901-2018...The aggregated drought evaluation index (ADE) shows increasing summer drought conditions over most of Europe, except for some stations in northern Europe.
Temporal Central Brazil Drought2022 (Tomasella et al., 2022) analyzed the spatio-temporal trends in SPI and SPEI time-series, which revealed statistically significant trends toward drier conditions across central Brazil for all time scales
Temporal Europe Aridity2022 (Bestakova et al., 2022) significant dry region expansion is evident in all data sets since the late 1980s. The extent of the dry regions has increased in Western, Central, and Eastern Europe, especially at low and medium altitudes.
Anthropogenic Global Drought2022 (Hao et al., 2022) from observations shows an overall increase in compound droughts and hot events or extremes in the past few decades at regional and global scales, which mainly results from an increase in hot extremes and is likely attributable to anthropogenic influences.

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