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Extreme Precipitation and Flooding (77 Papers)

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Shortlist Attribution Region SubCategory Year # Citations Cite As DOI Key Quote
Temporal Nigeria Extreme Precipitation2010 92(Adelekan, 2010) paper also considers changes in the frequency and intensity of rainstorms on Lagos Island between 1971 and 2005, which suggest that on average these have become less frequent but more intense.
Temporal Europe Floods2013 152(Kundzewicz et al., 2013) time series of flood information, over 25 years, collected by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory, is used to describe the spatio-temporal variability of large floods in Europe...The present analysis shows an increasing trend during the 25-year period in the number of reported floods exceeding severity and magnitude thresholds.
Warming Germany Floods2009 226Top (Petrow and Merz, 2009) time series are derived and analyzed for trends for 145 discharge gauges in Germany. A common time period of 52 years (1951-2002) is used...Our analysis detects significant flood trends (at the 10% significance level) for a considerable fraction of basins. In most cases, these trends are upward; decreasing flood trends are rarely found and are not field-significant...the observed changes in flood behavior are climate-driven.
Anthropogenic France Extreme Precipitation2019 10Top (Ribes et al., 2019) examine long-term trends in the historical record of extreme precipitation events occurring over the French Mediterranean area...The mean intensity increase is significant and estimated at + 22% (+ 7 to + 39% at the 90% confidence level) over the 1961-2015 period...We argue that it is difficult to explain the diagnosed trends without invoking the human influence on climate.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2013 764(Westra et al., 2013) study investigates the presence of trends in annual maximum daily precipitation time series obtained from a global dataset of 8326 high-quality land-based observing stations...from 1900 to 2009...statistically significant increasing trends can be detected at the global scale, with close to two-thirds of stations showing increases...there is a statistically significant association with globally averaged near-surface temperature.
Warming Australia Extreme Precipitation2011 126(Westra and Sisson, 2011) 1965 to 2005, we find a statistically significant increase of 18% for 6-min rainfall over this period
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation1997 909(Karl and Knight, 1997) 1910, precipitation has increased by about 10% across the contiguous United States. The increase in precipitation is reflected primarily in the heavy and extreme daily precipitation events. For example, over half (53%) of the total increase of precipitation is due to positive trends in the upper 10 percentiles of the precipitation distribution.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2013 855(Donat et al., 2013) in extreme precipitation are found, for example, for the number of heavy precipitation days (R10mm, Figure 8a) and the contribution from very wet days (R95pTOT, Figure 8b). Globally averaged, both indices display upward trends during the past 60 years. Similar patterns of change are also found for the average intensity of daily precipitation (Figure 8d)
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation2002 1410(Frich et al., 2002) new global dataset of derived indicators has been compiled to clarify whether frequency and/or severity of climatic extremes changed during the second half of the 20th century...significant increases have been seen in the extreme amount derived from wet spells and number of heavy rainfall events
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2012 178Top (Groisman et al., 2012) the past 31 yr (compared to the 1948-78 period), significant increases occurred in the frequency of very heavy (the daily rain events above 76.2 mm) and extreme precipitation events (defined as daily and multiday rain events with totals above 154.9 mm or 6 in.), with up to 40% increases in the frequency of days and multiday extreme rain events
Warming India Extreme Precipitation2006 727(Goswami et al., 2006) using a daily rainfall data set, we show (i) significant rising trends in the frequency and the magnitude of extreme rain events and (ii) a significant decreasing trend in the frequency of moderate events over central India during the monsoon seasons from 1951 to 2000
Warming North America Extreme Precipitation2008 148Top (Peterson et al., 2008) data from Canada, the United States, and Mexico enabled analysis of changes in North American extremes starting in 1950...On the basis of several measures, heavy precipitation has been increasing over the last half century, and the average amount of precipitation falling on days with precipitation has also been increasing.
Temporal Europe Extreme Precipitation2009 98(Zolina et al., 2009) trends in R95tt and R95tot derived from the annual time series are qualitatively consistent and imply a growing occurrence of extreme precipitation up to 3% decade in central western Europe and in south European Russia, with a more evident trend pattern for R95tt.
Temporal Central and South America Extreme Precipitation2005 372(Aguilar et al., 2005) Central America and northern South America...over the 1961-2003 period...rainfall events are intensifying and the contribution of wet and very wet days are enlarging
Temporal Europe (Central) Extreme Precipitation2007 85(Bartholy and Pongracz, 2007) climate extreme indices are analyzed and compared for Central/Eastern Europe...regional intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation has increased...between 1976 and 2001, while the total precipitation has decreased
Temporal Japan Extreme Precipitation2006 50(Fujibe et al., 2006) Long-term changes in the intensity and frequency of heavy precipitation in Japan were analyzed using quality checked daily precipitation data at 51 stations from 1901 to 2004...The result indicates that heavy precipitation based on these indices has increased during the 104 years.
Temporal India Extreme Precipitation2009 145(Krishnamurthy et al., 2009) a 1951-2003 gridded daily rainfall dataset for India... for the exceedance of the 99th percentile of daily rainfall, all locations where a significant increasing trend in frequency of exceedance is identified also exhibit a significant trend in rainfall intensity...there is support for the hypothesis that the frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall over India may be increasing over the previous 53 years
Warming India Extreme Precipitation2008 379(Rajeevan et al., 2008) 104 years (1901-2004) of high resolution daily gridded rainfall data...The present study supports the hypothesis that the increasing trend of extreme rainfall events in the last five decades could be associated with the increasing trend of sea surface temperatures and surface latent heat flux over the tropical Indian Ocean
Temporal China Floods2005 28(Fengqing et al., 2005) is an increasing trend in flood disasters in Xinjiang during the second half of the 20th century, especially since the mid-1980s...the occurrence of flood disasters could be mainly induced by local human activities before the mid-1980s, and thereafter mainly by abnormal precipitation in Xinjiang...records showed that the number of heavy rainfall events and the frequency of rainstorm flood disasters increased since the 1980s
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2009 3Top (Höppe and Grimm, 2009) the world...natural catastrophes have increased dramatically and are causing more and more damage...The upward trend in numbers of natural catastrophes is mainly due to weather-related events such as windstorms and floods...there is some justification for assuming that this trend is the result of changes in the atmosphere, most probably global warming.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2013 375Top (Kunkel, 2013) is strong evidence for a nationally averaged upward trend in the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2015 696(Fischer and Knutti 2015) show that at the present-day warming of 0.85 C about 18% of the moderate daily precipitation extremes over land are attributable to the observed temperature increase since pre-industrial times
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation2015 230(Lehmann et al. 2015) present the first analysis of record-breaking daily rainfall events using observational data. We show that over the last three decades the number of record-breaking events has significantly increased in the global mean. Globally, this increase has led to 12 % more record-breaking rainfall events over 1981-2010 compared to those expected in stationary time series.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2005 995(Groisman, 2005) changes in intense precipitation (e.g., the frequency of very heavy precipitation or the upper 0.3% of daily precipitation events) have been analyzed... very heavy precipitation has increased during the period of instrumental observations over most of the contiguous United States....In the midlatitudes, there is a widespread increase in the frequency of very heavy precipitation during the past 50 to 100 yr.
Temporal China Extreme Precipitation2017 66(Ma et al., 2017) precipitation records from over 700 Chinese stations from 1956 to 2005 are analyzed. The results show a significant shift from light to heavy precipitation over eastern China.
Temporal Global Floods2002 1151Top (Milly et al., 2002) both streamflow measurements and numerical simulations...We find that the frequency of great floods increased substantially during the twentieth century.
Anthropogenic Switzerland Extreme Precipitation2016 85(Scherrer et al., 2016) in intensity and frequency of daily heavy precipitation and hot temperature extremes are analyzed in Swiss observations for the years 1901 - 2014/2015...Over 90% of the series show increases in heavy precipitation intensity, expressed as annual maximum daily precipitation...and in heavy precipitation frequency, expressed as the number of events greater than the 99th percentile of daily precipitation...The identified trends are unlikely to be random and are consistent with climate model projections
Anthropogenic Northern Hemisphere Extreme Precipitation2011 1408(Min, 2011) we show that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the observed intensification of heavy precipitation events found over approximately two-thirds of data-covered parts of Northern Hemisphere land areas.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2004 443(Groisman et al., 2004) the contiguous United States, precipitation, temperature, streamflow, and heavy and very heavy precipitation have increased during the twentieth century...much of the increase in heavy and very heavy precipitation has occurred during the past three decades.
Warming Tropics Extreme Precipitation2010 176(Allan et al., 2010) changes in tropical precipitation from satellite data and climate models are assessed...The Special Sensor Microwave Imager data indicate an increased frequency of the heaviest events with warming.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2020 1(Brown, 2020) trends in extreme hourly precipitation time series were examined at 50 first-order weather stations across the Southeast United States (SeUS) from 1960-2017...the numerical value that defines a (station specific) 90th percentile hourly accumulation significantly(p.< 0.05) increased at 36% (18/50) of the stations.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2020 29Top (Kunkel et al., 2020) of extreme precipitation (EP) using various combinations of average return intervals (ARIs) of 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 years...were calculated regionally across the contiguous United States. Nationally, trends are upward...for both the frequency of extreme events and the proportion of total precipitation contributed by the extreme events...the trends for the frequency of extreme events are largest for ARIs of 20 years, the rarest event considered here.
Temporal Africa (West) Extreme Precipitation2019 23(Nkrumah et al., 2019) study makes use of a large set of daily rain gauge data covering Southern West Africa...from 1950 to 2014...During the first rainy season (April-July), mean annual rainfall is observed to have a minor trend due to less frequent but more intense rainfall mainly along the coast of Southern West Africa (SWA) over the last two decades.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2020 6Top (Tharu & Dhakal, 2020) precipitation time series over the period of 65 years (1950-2014) for 1108 sites was used for the analysis. Our results show that changes in upper quantiles of the distributions of the extreme precipitation (for both ADM and MM) have occurred at a much higher rate than previously believed.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2017 82(Huang, 2017) averaged, both annual total and extreme precipitation across the Northeast increased significantly since 1901, with changepoints occurring in 2002 and 1996, respectively. Annual extreme precipitation experienced a larger increase than total precipitation; extreme precipitation from 1996 to 2014 is 53% higher than from 1901 to 1995.
Warming United States Extreme Precipitation2019 43Top (Wright et al., 2019) events that exceed common engineering design criteria, including 100-year storms, have increased in frequency in most parts of the United States since 1950...we show that in most locations, these increases are likely due to climate warming.
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation2019 192Top (Papalexiou and Montanari, 2019) we perform a global analysis of 8,730 daily precipitation records focusing on the 1964-2013 period when the global warming accelerates...globally, over the last decade of the studied period we find 7% more extreme events than the expected number.
Anthropogenic Global Extreme Precipitation2013 187(Zhang et al., 2013) study provides estimates of the human contribution to the observed widespread intensification of precipitation extremes...over the Northern Hemisphere land area for 1951-2005...the effect of anthropogenic forcings can be detected in extreme precipitation observations. We estimate that human influence has intensified annual maximum 1 day precipitation in sampled Northern Hemisphere locations by 3.3%.
Warming China Floods2007 165(Jiang, Su and Hartmann, 2007) suspected impact of climate warming on precipitation distribution is examined in the Yangtze River Basin. Daily precipitation data for 147 meteorological stations from 1961-2000 and monthly discharge data for three stations in the basin have been analyzed...the rainstorms have aggravated floods in the middle and lower Yangtze River Basin in recent decades. The observed trends in precipitation and rainstorms are possibly caused by variations of atmospheric circulation (weakened summer monsoon) under climate warming.
Temporal Bangladesh Extreme Precipitation2010 158(Shahid, 2010) study of the variability of the extreme rainfall events in Bangladesh during the time period 1958-2007 has been carried out in this general, an increasing trend in heavy precipitation days and decreasing trends in consecutive dry days are observed.
Anthropogenic Global Extreme Precipitation2020 31Top (Paik et al., 2020) 1951-2015...anthropogenic greenhouse gas influence is robustly detected in the observed intensification of extreme precipitation over the global land and most of the sub-regions considered
Anthropogenic North America Extreme Precipitation2020 68(Kirchmeier-Young & Zhang, 2020) forcing, dominated by human influence, has contributed to the increase in frequency and intensity of regional precipitation extremes in North America
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2019 7(Paerl et al., 2019) of continuous rainfall records for coastal NC since 1898 reveals a period of unprecedentedly high precipitation since the late-1990's, and a trend toward increasingly high precipitation associated with tropical cyclones over the last 120 years.
Temporal China Extreme Precipitation2011 15(Liu et al., 2011) China over the period of 1960-2000...there has been an increasing trend in the frequency of precipitation exceeding the long-term mean 97.5th percentile and 99th percentile values.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2016 770(Donat et al., 2016) we investigate changes in these two aspects in the world's dry and wet regions using observations and global climate models...extreme daily precipitation averaged over both dry and wet regimes shows robust increases...this intensification has implications for the risk of flooding as the climate warms, particularly for the world's dry regions.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2015 55(Guilbert et al., 2015) data from 222 stations in 10 northeastern states are analyzed...with record lengths varying between 51 and 174 years...the study region is experiencing an increase in the magnitude of high-intensity precipitation events.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2013 375(Kunkel et al., 2013) total amount of precipitation accumulated on days when precipitation exceeds the 99th percentile for daily amounts, indicates a highly statistically significant upward trend for the period of 1957-2010 for the same set of regions (Midwest, Southeast, and Northeast) and the United States as a whole.
Temporal Korea Extreme Precipitation2011 108(Jung et al., 2011) spatial and temporal variability of precipitation in Korea were investigated using 183 weather station data for 1973-2005...the increase of annual precipitation is mainly associated with the increase of frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation during summer season...this variation of precipitation is likely to increase flood and drought risk.
Warming United States Floods2015 316(Mallakpour & Villarini, 2015), we show that while observational records (774 stream gauge stations) from the central United States present limited evidence of significant changes in the magnitude of floodpeaks, strong evidence points to an increasing frequency of flooding. These changes in flood hydrology result from changes in both seasonal rainfall and temperature across this region.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2008 43Top (Trenberth, 2008) is a direct influence of global warming on changes in precipitation and heavy rains...globally averaged over the land area with sufficient data, the percentage contribution to total annual precipitation from very wet days (upper 5%) has increased in the past 50 years.
Warming Europe (Central) Extreme Precipitation2020 22(Zeder & Fischer, 2020) of long-term (1901-2013) daily precipitation records from a densely sampled Central European station network, spanning Austria, Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands, are scaled with Northern Hemispheric and regional temperature anomalies...across Central Europe, an overall intensification and a positive scaling signal with Northern Hemispheric temperature is detected in annual, summer, and winter single-day to monthly maximum precipitation.
Temporal Iran Extreme Precipitation2020 3(Mahbod and Rafiee, 2020) spatial and temporal changes of very wet days across Iran was assessed, 1985-2013...RS95 (RS95gm) results showed a higher frequency of extreme events across Iran.
Temporal India Flooding2020 13(Chug et al., 2020) multiple locations across Western Himalayan (WH) rivers...we find that the frequency of extreme flow events during the period 1980-2003 has doubled with a statistically significant increasing trend in annual maximum streamflow. We postulate that this streamflow change is due to the increased precipitation extremes.
Temporal China Extreme Precipitation2020 4(Jian et al., 2020) extreme precipitation have significantly increased in 1961-2012...the frequency and proportion of extreme precipitation were significantly increased by 2.0-4.7% and 2.3-2.9% per decade, respectively, mainly in south China and Yangtze River Basin.
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation2019 50Top (Donat et al., 2019) use the globally most complete observational datasets that allow analysis of daily-scale precipitation extremes over the recent 60 year period 1951 to 2010...observations indicate increases in both total and extreme precipitation in the humid regions over the past 60 years...this study confirms that precipitation extremes are increasing in most land regions.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2016 46(Ingram, 2016) precipitation has increased across both the wetter and the drier parts of the continents, and will continue to do so as global warming continues.
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation2020 20(Contractor et al., 2020) study investigates changes in the number of wet-days (>=1mm) and the entire distribution of daily wet- and all-day records, in addition to trends in annual and seasonal totals from daily records, between 1950 and 2016. The main finding of this study is that precipitation has intensified across a majority of land areas globally throughout the wet-day distribution.
Temporal Australia Extreme Precipitation2020 7(Osburn et al., 2020) precipitation data from eight high quality precipitation gauges from 1958 to 2014 in Victoria (Australia) were used. On average, we found an 89% increase in hourly precipitation events exceeding 18 mm/h in the latter half of the study period as compared to the earlier half. The most extreme precipitation events increased in intensity by more than more moderate extremes.
Warming India Extreme Precipitation2021 4(Zahan et al., 2021) as the seasonal mean decreases, our estimate indicates that the frequency of occurrence of daily extremes (exceeding 99.5 percentile) over [North-East India] is increasing at + 51 +/- 4.99 %/K while the intensity is increasing at +12.5 +/- 3.32 %/K over the past century
Warming United States Extreme Precipitation2021 8Top (Prein & Mearns, 2021) precipitation has increased in frequency and intensity across the Conterminous U.S. This trend is expected to continue under future climate change.
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation2021 10(Tan et al., 2021) monsoon regions (EASM, SEAM and NAUM) which are located in the western Pacific and all the five non-monsoon regions (NA, AS, NAS, EU and SAH) over the Northern Hemisphere show increases (5-190 km) in the spatial extent of precipitation extremes in the seasons of DJF, MAM and JJA except SON.
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation2021 6(Chinita et al., 2021) used hourly precipitation at 1/4 deg spatial resolution from the new European Reanalysis-ERA5 (Hersbach et al 2020), to assess changes in the frequency of hourly and daily heavy precipitation events during 1989-2018 relative to 1979-1988...according to ERA5 and in a global average sense, during 1989-2018, hourly events that occurred once per year in 1979-1988 increased in frequency by 71 (53-93, 95% range), while the one day per year heavy event frequency increased by 44 (37-54) %.
Anthropogenic United States Extreme Precipitation2021 4(Huang et al., 2021) precipitation (EP) in the Northeastern United States increased abruptly after 1996, coinciding with warming Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs)...greenhouse gases are the only anthropogenic forcing exerting substantial influence on EP, first detected in 2008.
Temporal United States Extreme Precipitation2021 1(Flanagan & Mahmood, 2021) from 131 U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) stations were used to determine the nature of extreme precipitation from 1950 to 2019...results show that 99th-percentile events and annual station maximum precipitation events are becoming more frequent across the Missouri River basin.
Temporal Taiwan Extreme Precipitation2021 12(Henny et al., 2021) this study, Taiwan's extreme rainfall (ER) is analyzed over a 56-yr time period in different seasons and geographic regions...a trend analysis revealed a positive trend in island-mean ER for the winter, spring, and typhoon seasons.
Temporal Ireland Extreme Precipitation2021 1(Ryan et al., 2021) study provides the first assessment of long-term changes in extreme daily precipitation observed at 30 locations across Ireland...results show increases in precipitation intensity, especially notable in the east and southeast of the island. Our findings also show that the contribution of heavy and extreme precipitation events to annual totals is increasing
Temporal Global Floods2022 2Top (Liu, Shi and Fang, 2022) a global scale, annual flood occurrence showed an increasing trend during the study period (with a Z value of 2.08 in the MK test). The monotonous increasing trend of global flood frequency was mainly caused by the increase in Level II and Level III flood frequencies, while Level I floods show an decreasing trend but not significant (Fig. 1 and Table 4).
Warming Bangladesh Extreme Precipitation2022 1(Azad et al., 2022) results showed a significant decreasing trend in light and moderate precipitation indices, P10, D10, P20, and D20, while an increasing trend in heavy precipitation indices such as P60, D60, P60plus, and D60plus.
Temporal China Extreme Precipitation2022 1(Zhang and Zhao, 2022) terms of extreme precipitation events, precipitation persistence showed a decreasing trend, but an increasing trend in precipitation intensity and magnitude in most regions of China.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation2022 3(Du et al., 2022) and climate model simulations show that the frequency of extreme precipitation on consecutive days (EPCD) is increasing in most land regions, in particular, in North America, Europe, and the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes...changes are larger in simulations with a stronger warming signal
Temporal Israel Extreme Precipitation2020 (Ajjur and Riffi, 2020) on the daily precipitation observations of eight meteorological stations over Gaza Strip, from 1974 to 2016, the trends of 11 extreme precipitation indices (EPIs) were estimated...the results show that, on average, most of the indices exhibited increasing trends during 1974-2016.
Anthropogenic Global Extreme Precipitation2020 Top (Dong et al., 2020) we conduct a formal detection and attribution analysis on changes in four percentile-based precipitation extreme indices...we show that most land areas with observations experienced increases in these extreme indices with global warming during the historical period optimal fingerprinting analysis reveals detectable anthropogenic signals in the observations of these indices averaged over the globe and over most continents.
Warming Nepal Floods2022 (Chapagain, Bharati and Borgemeister, 2022) found that climatic disaster frequency and mortality increased in Nepal from 1992 to 2021...landslides and floods were the two deadliest disaster types, accounting for 37% and 32% of total disaster mortality, respectively.
Anthropogenic Japan Extreme Precipitation2022 (Murakmai et al., 2022) frequency of large-scale anomalous precipitation events associated with heavy precipitation has been increasing in Japan...the results show that the observed increases in anomalous heavy precipitation events in Western Japan during 1977-2015 were not made only by internal variability but the increases in anthropogenic forcing played an important role.
Temporal Brazil Extreme Precipitation2022 (Martini, 2022) series analysis of several rain gauges shows that the mid-latitudes of Brazil experienced an increase in both annual and extreme rainfall over the last 60-years (1961-2020). The annual time series shows a significant upward trend, while changes in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall indicate a shortening of the recurrence interval for extreme precipitation events.
Warming Malaysia Extreme Precipitation2022 (Yik Ng et al., 2022) study presents a spatial-temporal analysis on changes of precipitation extremes in Peninsular Malaysia by utilizing long-term daily rainfall records at 64 observed stations during 1989-2018...Statistically significant increasing trends are observed for four of these extreme indices in the annual assessment.
Warming Turkey Extreme Precipitation2022 (Albayrak et al., 2022) Overall, from 5-min to 2-hr durations, magnitudes of trends in extreme rainfall constantly increase in all rainfall regimes, which may be attributed to the intensified contribution of convective rainfall as a response to warming

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