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Global

Shortlist Attribution Region Category Citation Count Year Cite As DOI Key Quote
Warming Global Cholera 832012(Vezzulli et al., 2012)https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2011.89We showed that during the last half century, ubiquitous marine bacteria of the Vibrio genus, including Vibrio cholerae, increased in dominance...increased sea surface temperature explained 45% of the variance in Vibrio data, supporting the view that ocean warming is favouring the spread of vibrios and may be the cause of the globally increasing trend in their associated diseases.
Warming Global Economic Impacts 5122012(Dell et al., 2012)https://doi.org/10.1257/mac.4.3.66Higher temperatures substantially reduce economic growth in poor countries...higher temperatures may reduce growth rates, not just the level of output...higher temperatures have wide-ranging effects, reducing agricultural output, industrial output, and political stability
Warming Global Crops 12112007Top (Lobell and Field, 2007)https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/2/1/014002For wheat, maize and barley, there is a clearly negative response of global yields to increased temperatures. Based on these sensitivities and observed climate trends, we estimate that warming since 1981 has resulted in annual combined losses of these three crops representing roughly 40 Mt or $5 billion per year, as of 2002
Warming Global Crops 22662011Top (Lobell et al., 2011)https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1204531Models that link yields of the four largest commodity crops to weather indicate that global maize and wheat production declined by 3.8 and 5.5%, respectively, relative to a counterfactual without climate trends
Warming Global Fisheries 7862004Top (Atkinson et al, 2004)https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02996Krill support commercial fisheries...we have combined all available scientific net sampling data from 1926 to 2003...the productive southwest Atlantic sector contains >50% of Southern Ocean krill stocks, but here their density has declined since the 1970s...summer krill densities correlate positively with sea-ice extent the previous winter.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation 7012013(Westra et al., 2013)https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00502.1This study investigates the presence of trends in annual maximum daily precipitation time series obtained from a global dataset of 8326 high-quality land-based observing stations...from 1900 to 2009...statistically significant increasing trends can be detected at the global scale, with close to two-thirds of stations showing increases...there is a statistically significant association with globally averaged near-surface temperature.
Warming Global Hurricanes 2282006Top (Hoyos et al., 2006)https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1123560The results show that the trend of increasing numbers of category 4 and 5 hurricanes for the period 1970-2004 is directly linked to the trend in sea-surface temperature
Anthropogenic Atlantic Ocean Hurricanes 4242006(Mann and Emanuel, 2006)https://doi.org/10.1029/2006EO240001Using a formal statistical analysis to separate the estimated influences of anthropogenic climate change from possible natural cyclical influences, this article presents results indicating that anthropogenic factors are likely responsible for long-term trends in tropical Atlantic warmth and tropical cyclone activity
Temporal Global Hurricanes 13772005Top (Webster et al., 2005)https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1116448Hurricanes in the strongest categories (4 + 5) have almost doubled in number (50 per pentad in the 1970s to near 90 per pentad during the past decade) and in proportion (from around 20% to around 35% during the same period)...We conclude that global data indicate a 30-year trend toward more frequent and intense hurricanes, corroborated by the results of the recent regional assessment
Warming Global Hurricanes 23632005Top (Emanuel, 2005)https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03906I define an index of the potential destructiveness of hurricanes based on the total dissipation of power, integrated over the lifetime of the cyclone, and show that this index has increased markedly since the mid-1970s...I find that the record of net hurricane power dissipation is highly correlated with tropical sea surface temperature
Warming Global Drought 17182011Top (Dai, 2011)https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.81This article reviews recent literature on drought of the last millennium, followed by an update on global aridity changes from 1950 to 2008...recent warming has increased atmospheric moisture demand and likely altered atmospheric circulation patterns, both contributing to the drying
Warming Global Reduced Streamflow 6572009(Dai et al., 2009)https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2592.1One-third of the top 200 rivers (including the Congo, Mississippi, Yenisey, Paraná, Ganges, Columbia, Uruguay, and Niger) show statistically significant trends during 1948-2004, with the rivers having downward trends (45) outnumbering those with upward trends (19)... Comparisons with the CLM3 simulation suggest that direct human influence on annual streamflow is likely small compared with climatic forcing during 1948-2004 for most of the world's major rivers.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation 8202013(Donat et al., 2013)https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50150Changes in extreme precipitation are found, for example, for the number of heavy precipitation days (R10mm, Figure 8a) and the contribution from very wet days (R95pTOT, Figure 8b). Globally averaged, both indices display upward trends during the past 60 years. Similar patterns of change are also found for the average intensity of daily precipitation (Figure 8d)
Anthropogenic Global Allergies 2912004(Beggs, 2004)https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.0206...There is now considerable evidence to suggest that climate change will have, and has already had, impacts on aeroallergens
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation 13742002Top (Frich et al., 2002)https://doi.org/10.3354/cr019193A new global dataset of derived indicators has been compiled to clarify whether frequency and/or severity of climatic extremes changed during the second half of the 20th century...significant increases have been seen in the extreme amount derived from wet spells and number of heavy rainfall events
Warming Atlantic Ocean Hurricanes 7312008Top (Elsner et al., 2008)https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07234Atlantic tropical cyclones are getting stronger on average, with a 30-year trend that has been related to an increase in ocean temperatures over the Atlantic Ocean and elsewhere...We find significant upward trends for wind speed quantiles above the 70th percentile, with trends as high as 0.3 +/- 0.09 m s-1 yr-1 (s.e.) for the strongest cyclones.
Temporal Global Extratropical Cyclones 952002(Paciorek et al., 2002)https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015%3C...Regional averages for large sectors of the hemisphere provide some evidence for increases in storm activity and forcing, but results vary by region and decade. The number of cyclones does not appear to be increasing, but there is evidence for an increase in intense cyclones.
Temporal Atlantic Ocean Hurricanes 282008(Kossin, 2008)https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036012Observed trends in the annual distribution of North Atlantic tropical storm formation...during the period 1851-2007...A consistent signal emerged that suggests the season has become longer as the earliest formation dates of the season have become earlier and the latest dates have become later.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation 32009Top (Höppe and Grimm, 2009)https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-77353-7_2Throughout the world...natural catastrophes have increased dramatically and are causing more and more damage...The upward trend in numbers of natural catastrophes is mainly due to weather-related events such as windstorms and floods...there is some justification for assuming that this trend is the result of changes in the atmosphere, most probably global warming.
Temporal Western North Pacific Hurricanes 82018(Tu et al., 2018)https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aade3aThe destructive potential of TCs has a considerable increasing trend from 1998 to 2016 (the P2 period), mainly contributed by the average intensity of TCs
Temporal Global Drought 1102014(Damberg and AghaKouchak, 2014)https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-013-1019-5This paper analyzes changes in areas under droughts over the past three decades...based on satellite gauge-adjusted precipitation observations...we show that several regions, such as the southwestern United States, Texas, parts of the Amazon, the Horn of Africa, northern India, and parts of the Mediterranean region, exhibit a significant drying trend.
Warming Global Desertification 4892013(Feng and Fu, 2013)https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-10081-2013By analyzing observations for 1948-2008...we show that global drylands have expanded in the last sixty years
Temporal Global Desertification 932014Top (Spinoni et al., 2014)https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4124We couple the information obtained from the Koppen-Geiger (KG) climate classification and the FAO aridity index (AI), providing an overview of the most evident global changes in climate regimes from 1951-1980 to 1981-2010...Both KG and AI show that the arid areas globally increased between 1951-1980 and 1981-2010...North-Eastern Brazil, Southern Argentina, the Sahel, Zambia and Zimbabwe, the Mediterranean area, North-Eastern China and Sub-Himalayan India have been identified as areas with a significant increase of drylands extent.
Anthropogenic Global Desertification 302015(Chan and Wu, 2015)https://doi.org/10.1038/srep13487About 5.7% of the global total land area has shifted toward warmer and drier climate types from 1950-2010 and significant changes include expansion of arid and high-latitude continental climate zones.
Temporal Global Desertification 3172013(Chen and Chen, 2013)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2013.03.007It is concluded that the most significant change over 1901-2010 is a distinct areal increase of the dry climate...since the 1980s.
Temporal Global Drought 1362017(Dai and Zhao 2017)https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1705-2Updated precipitation and streamflow data and the self-calibrated PDSI_pm all show consistent drying during 1950-2012 over most Africa, East and South Asia, southern Europe, eastern Australia, and many parts of the Americas.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation 6622015(Fischer and Knutti 2015)https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2617We show that at the present-day warming of 0.85 C about 18% of the moderate daily precipitation extremes over land are attributable to the observed temperature increase since pre-industrial times
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation 2182015(Lehmann et al. 2015)https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-015-1434-yWe present the first analysis of record-breaking daily rainfall events using observational data. We show that over the last three decades the number of record-breaking events has significantly increased in the global mean. Globally, this increase has led to 12 % more record-breaking rainfall events over 1981-2010 compared to those expected in stationary time series.
Temporal Global Crops 13842016Top (Lesk et al., 2016)https://doi.org/10.1038/nature16467Here we estimate for the first time, to our knowledge, national cereal production losses across the globe resulting from reported extreme weather disasters during 1964-2007. We show that droughts and extreme heat significantly reduced national cereal production by 9-10%...Furthermore, the results highlight ~7% greater production damage from more recent droughts.
Temporal Global Heat Waves 632015(Mishra et al. 2015; )https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/2/024005Using observed station data for 217 urban areas across the globe, we show that these urban areas have experienced significant increases (p-value <0.05) in the number of heat waves during the period 1973-2012.
Temporal Global Drought 1872018Top (Pan et al., 2018)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2018.05.018Global vegetation trends during the period 1982-2013...A >60% increase in browning area was found during the study period, and the results consistently indicate that the expansion of browning trends has accelerated since 1994.
Warming Global Drought 982019(Spinoni et al., 2019)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2019.100593We constructed a database of meteorological drought events from 1951 to 2016...Over North America, central Europe, central Asia, and Australia, the recent progressive temperature increase outbalanced the increase in precipitation causing more frequent and severe droughts.
Warming Global Violence 9082013Top (Hsiang et al., 2013)https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1235367Our meta-analysis of studies that examine populations in the post-1950 era suggests that the magnitude of climate's influence on modern conflict is both substantial and highly statistically significant (P < 0.001). Each 1-SD change in climate toward warmer temperatures or more extreme rainfall increases the frequency of interpersonal violence by 4% and intergroup conflict by 14% (median estimates).
Temporal Global Violence 1902016(Schleussner et al., 2016)https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1601611113Based on data on armed-conflict outbreaks and climate-related natural disasters for the period 1980-2010. Globally, we find a coincidence rate of 9% regarding armed-conflict outbreak and disaster occurrence such as heat waves or droughts. Our analysis also reveals that, during the period in question, about 23% of conflict outbreaks in ethnically highly fractionalized countries robustly coincide with climatic calamities.
Warming Global Heat Waves 962013(Coumou et al., 2013)https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-012-0668-1Worldwide, the number of local record-breaking monthly temperature extremes is now on average five times larger than expected in a climate with no long-term warming...Summertime records, which are associated with prolonged heat waves, increased by more than a factor of ten in some continental regions including parts of Europe, Africa, southern Asia and Amazonia.
Anthropogenic Global Drought 3041998(Dai et al., 1998)https://doi.org/10.1029/98GL52511Since the late 1970s, however, there have been some increases in the combined percentage areas in severe drought and severe moisture surplus, resulting from increases in either the drought area (e.g., over the Sahel, eastern Asia and southern Africa) or both the drought and wet areas (e.g., over the U.S. and Europe)...These changes are qualitatively consistent with those expected from increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Anthropogenic Global Drought 15032004Top (Dai et al., 2004)https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-386.1The global very dry areas, defined as PDSI < −3.0, have more than doubled since the 1970s, with a large jump in the early 1980s due to an ENSO-induced precipitation decrease and a subsequent expansion primarily due to surface warming...these results provide observational evidence for the increasing risk of droughts as anthropogenic global warming progresses and produces both increased temperatures and increased drying.
Temporal Global Floods 10942002Top (Milly et al., 2002)https://doi.org/10.1038/415514aUsing both streamflow measurements and numerical simulations...We find that the frequency of great floods increased substantially during the twentieth century.
Temporal Global Fires 8042015(Jolly et al., 2015)https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8537From 1979 to 2013...we show that fire weather seasons have lengthened across 29.6 million km^2 (25.3%) of the Earth's vegetated surface, resulting in an 18.7% increase in global mean fire weather season length...and an increased global frequency of long fire weather seasons across 62.4 million km2 (53.4%) during the second half of the study period.
Temporal Global Heat Waves 2762014Top (Russo et al., 2014)https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022098Results show that the percentage of global area affected by heat waves has increased in recent decades...In the 11 years between 2002 and 2012, the percentage of global area affected by moderate (HWMI >=2), severe (HWMI >=3), and extreme (HWMI >=4) heat waves was threefold greater than in the previous periods (1980-1990 and 1991-2001)
Anthropogenic Northern Hemisphere Extreme Precipitation 13232011Top (Min, 2011)https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09763Here we show that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the observed intensification of heavy precipitation events found over approximately two-thirds of data-covered parts of Northern Hemisphere land areas.
Warming Tropics Extreme Precipitation 1722010(Allan et al., 2010)https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/5/2/025205Current changes in tropical precipitation from satellite data and climate models are assessed...The Special Sensor Microwave Imager data indicate an increased frequency of the heaviest events with warming.
Anthropogenic Atlantic Ocean Hurricanes 152019(Bhatia et al., 2019)https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08471-zHere, we utilize two observational datasets to calculate 24-hour wind speed changes over the period 1982-2009...our results suggest a detectable increase of Atlantic intensification rates with a positive contribution from anthropogenic forcing.
Warming Global Crops 2192019Top (Ray et al., 2019)https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217148Crop statistics were compiled from 1974-2013 for ten crops across ~20,000 political units globally...this is the first observational global study reporting the impact of current climate change on the yields of the top ten global crops...among the top three global cereals, recent yields have decreased for rice (-0.3% or ~-1.6 million tons (MT) annually) and wheat (-0.9% or ~-5.0 MT annually)...we found that crop yields across Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and Australia had in general decreased because of climate change, though exceptions are present. Similar variations are seen in other crops and regions all over the world...recent climate change has likely reduced overall consumable food calories in these ten crops by ~1%.
Warming Global Drought 162019Top (Peng et al., 2019)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2019.04.0...Since the late 1940s, drylands have increased at a rate of 512,180 km2/decade. The main feature is the sharp jump in drylands expansion in the 1980s, with the area of drylands increasing 3.1% (1.90 x 106km2) between 1980 and 2008 compared to 1948-1979...rapid warming since the 1980s has become an increasing important cause of the recent global drying trend.
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation 1272019Top (Papalexiou and Montanari, 2019)https://doi.org/10.1029/2018WR024067Here we perform a global analysis of 8,730 daily precipitation records focusing on the 1964-2013 period when the global warming accelerates...globally, over the last decade of the studied period we find 7% more extreme events than the expected number.
Warming Global Drought 52020(Zhang et al., 2020)https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6555During 1980-2010, due to significant global warming (0.30 C decade -1) the global mean occurrence frequency of [short-term concurrent hot and dry extreme events] has a slightly increasing trend (0.34% decade -1)
Anthropogenic Global Extreme Precipitation 1692013(Zhang et al., 2013)https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.51010This study provides estimates of the human contribution to the observed widespread intensification of precipitation extremes...over the Northern Hemisphere land area for 1951-2005...the effect of anthropogenic forcings can be detected in extreme precipitation observations. We estimate that human influence has intensified annual maximum 1 day precipitation in sampled Northern Hemisphere locations by 3.3%.
Warming Global Fisheries 7722020Top (Boyce, Lewis and Worm, 2010)https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09268Phytoplankton account for approximately half the production of organic matter on Earth. We observe declines in eight out of ten ocean regions, and estimate a global rate of decline of 1% of the global median per year...long-term declining trends are related to increasing sea surface temperatures.
Warming Global Hurricanes 1302020Top (Kossin et al., 2020)https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1920849117Here the homogenized global TC intensity record is extended to the 39-y period 1979-2017, and statistically significant (at the 95% confidence level) increases are identified. Increases and trends are found in the exceedance probability and proportion of major (Saffir-Simpson categories 3 to 5) TC intensities ... Between the early and latter halves of the time period, the major TC exceedance probability increases by about 8% per decade
Warming Global Hurricanes 62020Top (Elsner, 2020)https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0338.1The strongest tropical cyclones have continued to get stronger...Here I show that this is the case with increases in the upper quantile intensities of global tropical cyclones amounting to between 3.5 and 4.5% in the period 2007-2019 relative to the earlier base period (1981-2006)
Warming Global Heat Waves 1392020(Raymond et al., 2020)https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaw1838A comprehensive evaluation of weather station data shows that some coastal subtropical locations have already reported a TW of 35 C and that extreme humid heat overall has more than doubled in frequency since 1979
Warming Global Heat Waves 462020(Li et al., 2020)https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab7d04The historical ~1 C of global-mean surface air temperature increase above preindustrial levels has already increased the population annually exposed to at least one day with wet bulb globe temperature exceeding 33 C (the reference safety value for humans at rest per the ISO-7243 standard) from 97 million to 275 million.
Anthropogenic Global Extreme Precipitation 172020Top (Paik et al., 2020)https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL086875During 1951-2015...anthropogenic greenhouse gas influence is robustly detected in the observed intensification of extreme precipitation over the global land and most of the sub-regions considered
Temporal Africa Crops 672014(Shi and Tao, 2014)https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-014-0370-4Databases of maize yields and climate variables in the maize growing seasons were used to assess the vulnerability of African maize yields to climate change and variability with different levels of management at country scale between 1961 and 2010...the negative impacts of increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation and SPEI on maize yields progressively increased at the whole continent scale over the time period studied.
Warming Global Heat Waves 2952017(Diffenbaugh et al., 2017)https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1618082114We find that historical warming has increased the severity and probability of the hottest month and hottest day of the year at >80% of the available observational area...79% of the observed area exhibits a statistically significant trend in peak summer monthly temperature.
Anthropogenic Global Heat Waves 522016Top (Knutson & Ploshay, 2016)https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1708-zAs a heat stress metric we use a simplified wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index...our analysis suggests that there has been a detectable anthropogenic increase in mean summertime heat stress since 1973, both globally and in most land regions analyzed.
Anthropogenic Global Hurricanes 1932019Top (Knutson et al., 2019)https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0189.1The balance of evidence suggests detectable anthropogenic contributions to...increased global average intensity of the strongest TCs since early 1980s, increase in global proportion of TCs reaching category 4 or 5 intensity in recent decades.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation 6932016(Donat et al., 2016)https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2941Here we investigate changes in these two aspects in the world's dry and wet regions using observations and global climate models...extreme daily precipitation averaged over both dry and wet regimes shows robust increases...this intensification has implications for the risk of flooding as the climate warms, particularly for the world's dry regions.
Warming Global Hurricanes 232016(Xu et al., 2016)https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-16-0164.1An empirical relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and the maximum potential intensification rate (MPIR) of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the North Atlantic has been developed based on the best-track TC data and the observed SST during 1988-2014...results from this study show a nonlinear increasing trend of the MPIR with increasing SST.
Warming Global Hurricanes 52015(Fraza & Elsner, 2015)https://doi.org/10.1080/02723646.2015.1066146The climatic influence of sea-surface temperature (SST) on intensification is examined for North Atlantic hurricanes by averaging hourly intensity increases from best-track data over the period 1986-2013...on average, mean intensification increases by 16% [(9, 20)% uncertainty interval] for every 1 C increase in mean SST.
Temporal Global Hurricanes 1002013(Kossin et al., 2013)https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00262.1To create a more temporally consistent record of tropical cyclone intensity within the period 1982-2009...global trends deduced using quantile regression are shown. In the best track, the trend in the mean lifetime maximum intensity is about +2 m s-1 decade-1 and is statistically significant.
Warming Global Hurricanes 522015(Kang & Elsner, 2015)https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2646We calculate an average increase in global tropical cyclone intensity of 1.3 m s-1 over the past 30 years of ocean warming occurring at the expense of 6.1 tropical cyclones worldwide.
Warming Global Hurricanes 222012(Kishtawal et al., 2012)https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051700Over all the basins, the rate of Tropical Cyclone intensification from 64 kt to first peak of intensity maxima (global average value = 104 kt) was found to be positive...the trends indicate that the TCs now intensify from 64 kt to 104 kt nearly 9 hours earlier than they did 25 years back...increasing TC intensification may partly be attributed to the rate of ocean warming at different basins.
Warming Pacific Ocean Hurricanes 2072016(Mei & Xie, 2016)https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2792Over the past 37 years, typhoons that strike East and Southeast Asia have intensified by 12-15%, with the proportion of storms of categories 4 and 5 having doubled or even tripled...we find that the increased intensity of landfalling typhoons is due to strengthened intensification rates, which in turn are tied to locally enhanced ocean surface warming on the rim of East and Southeast Asia.
Temporal Pacific Ocean Hurricanes 282012(Kang & Elsner, 2012)https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00735.1The consensus of TC trends between the two agencies over the period is interpreted as fewer but stronger events since 1984, even with the lower power dissipation index (PDI) in the western North Pacific in recent years.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation 362008Top (Trenberth, 2008)https://doi.org/10.1002/0470848944.hsa211There is a direct influence of global warming on changes in precipitation and heavy rains...globally averaged over the land area with sufficient data, the percentage contribution to total annual precipitation from very wet days (upper 5%) has increased in the past 50 years.
Warming Global Hurricanes 2592010(Menendez & Woodworth, 2010)https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005997Mean sea level (MSL) has generally increased worldwide during the 20th century due to the thermal expansion of sea water, the melting of ice sheets and glaciers, and the hydrological exchanges between the land and the ocean...there has indeed been an increase in extreme high water levels worldwide since 1970...results show that the MSL rise is the major reason for the rise in extreme high water at most stations.
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation 382019Top (Donat et al., 2019)https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab1c8eWe use the globally most complete observational datasets that allow analysis of daily-scale precipitation extremes over the recent 60 year period 1951 to 2010...observations indicate increases in both total and extreme precipitation in the humid regions over the past 60 years...this study confirms that precipitation extremes are increasing in most land regions.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation 392016(Ingram, 2016)https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2966Intense precipitation has increased across both the wetter and the drier parts of the continents, and will continue to do so as global warming continues.
Warming Global Crops 372018(Lizumi et al., 2018)https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5818Here, we estimate the impacts of climate change on the global average yields of maize, rice, wheat and soybeans for 1981-2010, relative to the preindustrial climate...climate change has decreased the global mean yields of maize, wheat and soybeans by 4.1, 1.8 and 4.5%, respectively, relative to the counterfactual simulation
Warming Global Crops 4722013(Bebber et al., 2013)https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1990Here, we demonstrate an average poleward shift of 2.7+/-0.8 kmyr-1 since 1960, in observations of hundreds of pests and pathogens...the observed positive latitudinal trends in many taxa support the hypothesis of global warming-driven pest movement.
Anthropogenic Global Heat Waves 112020Top (Chambers, 2020)https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-020-02884-2Heatwaves have become more frequent and intense due to anthropogenic global warming... from 1980 to 2018... we demonstrated that there is a clear trend in increasing heatwave days globally.
Warming Global Hurricanes 382020(Li & Chakraborty, 2020)https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2867-7Here we analyse intensity data for North Atlantic landfalling hurricanes11 over the past 50 years and show that hurricane decay has slowed, and that the slowdown in the decay over time is in direct proportion to a contemporaneous rise in the sea surface temperature.
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation 122020(Contractor et al., 2020)https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0965.1This study investigates changes in the number of wet-days (>=1mm) and the entire distribution of daily wet- and all-day records, in addition to trends in annual and seasonal totals from daily records, between 1950 and 2016. The main finding of this study is that precipitation has intensified across a majority of land areas globally throughout the wet-day distribution.
Warming Global Heatwaves 312020(Mukherjee and Mishra, 2020)https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL090617Several regions across the globe witnessed rise in compound drought and heatwave frequency (1-3 events/year), duration (2-10 days/year), and severity. This increasing pattern is spatially asymmetric, and greater amplification is observed across the Northern hemisphere due to recent warming.
Warming Indian Ocean Hurricanes 32020(Vidya et al., 2020)https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/abceedThe present study examines the role of the Southern Indian Ocean (SIO) warming on the cyclone destruction potential or Power Dissipation Index (PDI) during two contrasting periods of 1980-1998 and 1999-2016. The PDI in the SIO during 1999-2016 is found to have doubled compared to the same during 1980-1998...the increasing trend in PDI during the latter period is primarily due to an increase in the intensity of cyclones and their duration...the increasing PDI is associated with a sea surface temperature warming.
Anthropogenic Global Intensity 1892013Top (Holland & Bruyere, 2013)https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-1713-0We conclude that since 1975 there has been a substantial and observable regional and global increase in the proportion of Cat 4-5 hurricanes of 25-30% per degree C of anthropogenic global warming. The increasing proportion of intense hurricanes has been accompanied by a similar decrease in weaker hurricanes.
Anthropogenic Global Intensity 2082007(Emanuel, 2007)https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1571.1Over the last 25 yr...there has been a 10% increase in potential intensity in the tropical Atlantic, and a 6% increase in the western North Pacific during this time, owing mostly to increasing net radiative fluxes into the ocean and decreasing tropopause temperature.
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation 42021(Tan et al., 2021)https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/abf462Three monsoon regions (EASM, SEAM and NAUM) which are located in the western Pacific and all the five non-monsoon regions (NA, AS, NAS, EU and SAH) over the Northern Hemisphere show increases (5-190 km) in the spatial extent of precipitation extremes in the seasons of DJF, MAM and JJA except SON.
Temporal Global Extreme Precipitation 32021(Chinita et al., 2021)https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ac0caaWe used hourly precipitation at 1/4 deg spatial resolution from the new European Reanalysis-ERA5 (Hersbach et al 2020), to assess changes in the frequency of hourly and daily heavy precipitation events during 1989-2018 relative to 1979-1988...according to ERA5 and in a global average sense, during 1989-2018, hourly events that occurred once per year in 1979-1988 increased in frequency by 71 (53-93, 95% range), while the one day per year heavy event frequency increased by 44 (37-54) %.
Warming Global Hurricanes 132021(Guzman & Jiang, 2021)https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25685-2Overall, observations exhibit an increasing trend in the average TC rainfall rate of about 1.3% per year...these trends are associated with increases in sea surface temperature and total precipitable water in the TC environment.
Temporal Global Extratropical Cyclones 362016(Chang & Yau, 2016)https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2911-8Between 1959 and 2010, Pacific storm track activity has likely increased by 10 % or more, while Atlantic storm track activity has likely increased by <10 %
Temporal Global Extratropical Cyclones 432016(Wang X. L. et al., 2016)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.06.01...All the four datasets that cover the period 1958-2010 agree well in terms of trend direction and interannual variability in hemispheric counts of deep-cyclones, showing a general increase in both hemispheres over the past half century.
Temporal Global Crops 32021(He et al., 2021)https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.7518We proposed a novel approach to identify and summarize CDHEs [compound drought and heatwave events] by taking "crop growing season" as accumulated period, and investigated the spatiotemporal changes of CDHEs occurring within wheat growing seasons over global wheat-producing areas during 1981-2020...the frequency of CDHEs increased significantly in 28.2% of wheat-producing areas, and the total duration of CDHEs increased significantly in 33.2% of wheat-producing areas
Anthropogenic Global Drought 12022(Zhang et al., 2022)https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ac43e0In this study, we provide evidence that anthropogenic forcings have contributed to the increased compound dry and hot events (CDHEs) over global land areas...the results show observed occurrences of CDHEs have increased over most regions across global land areas during 1956-2010 relative to 1901-1955...we find anthropogenic influences have increased the risk of CDHEs in large regions across the globe except for parts of Eurasia and North America.
Temporal Global Aridity 32022Top (Ullah et al., 2022)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.10599...The present study assessed spatiotemporal changes in global aridity over the period 1901-2019, using five aridity indices...except for the AIunep index, the rest of the indices displayed an obvious and consistent increase in aridity over Northern Hemisphere...the increase (decrease) in temperature (soil moisture) has intensified the process of potential evapotranspiration (PET) and aridity across the globe.
Temporal Global Floods 12022Top (Liu, Shi and Fang, 2022)https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-021-05150-5At a global scale, annual flood occurrence showed an increasing trend during the study period (with a Z value of 2.08 in the MK test). The monotonous increasing trend of global flood frequency was mainly caused by the increase in Level II and Level III flood frequencies, while Level I floods show an decreasing trend but not significant (Fig. 1 and Table 4).
Temporal Global Floods 12022Top (Liu, Shi and Fang, 2022)https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-021-05150-5Based on global flood events data from the DFO database for 1985-2019, this study analysed the distribution for the occurrence of floods...at a global scale, annual flood occurrence showed an increasing trend during the study period...the increase in global flood frequency has been mainly caused by the increase in the frequency of Level II and Level III floods, and the average affected area of individual flood event has been increasing yearly.
Anthropogenic Global Extreme Precipitation02020Top (Dong et al., 2020)https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-1017.1Here we conduct a formal detection and attribution analysis on changes in four percentile-based precipitation extreme indices...we show that most land areas with observations experienced increases in these extreme indices with global warming during the historical period 1951-2014...an optimal fingerprinting analysis reveals detectable anthropogenic signals in the observations of these indices averaged over the globe and over most continents.
Anthropogenic Global Heat Waves02021(Robinson et al., 2021)https://doi.org/10.1038/s41612-021-00202-wWe are now entering an era with heat extremes that simply would not have occurred without climate change...the land area affected by 3-sigma heat has almost doubled and 4-sigma heat has now newly emerged in the observations.
Warming Global Extreme Precipitation02022(Du et al., 2022)https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0140.1Observations and climate model simulations show that the frequency of extreme precipitation on consecutive days (EPCD) is increasing in most land regions, in particular, in North America, Europe, and the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes...changes are larger in simulations with a stronger warming signal

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